The Mercy Seat

by A. W. Pink

EXODUS 25:17-22 The Mercy-seat was a solid sheet or slab of pure gold. Though a separate and distinct article in itself, it formed the lid of the Ark, being placed “above upon the Ark”; whose “crown of gold round about” (forming the top of its sides) would support and prevent it from slipping off. The Mercy-seat differed from the Ark in that no wood entered into its composition. There was only one other piece of furniture in the Tabernacle made solely of gold, namely the candlestick, which was smaller in size and weight; therefore the Mercy-seat, according to its intrinsic worth, was the most valuable of all the holy vessels. How this tells us of the preciousness in the sight of God of that which the Mercy-seat foreshadowed.

The Mercy-seat, or better, the Propitiatory, derived its name from the blood of propitiation which was sprinkled thereon. It was the same length and breadth as the Ark, being two and a half by one cubit and a half. At either end of it was a cherub, not fastened thereto, but beaten out of the same one piece of gold of which the Mercy-seat was formed. These symbolic figures had their wings outstretched, thus overshadowing the Mercy-seat, with their faces looking down upon it. Let us now consider: —


Concerning the typical meaning of the Mercy-seat there is quite a variety of interpretations offered to us. Some writers have been turned aside from the right track by dwelling upon the etymology of the Hebrew word, instead of seeking a definition from its usage in the Scriptures. Others have caused confusion through failing to distinguish between the respective foreshadowings of the brazen altar and the Mercy-seat. The real typical meaning of the Mercy-seat has been Divinely explained to us in Romans 3:25, though the Authorized Version partly hides this from view: “Being justified freely by His grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus: whom God hath set forth to be a Propitiation (better, a “Propitiatory”) through faith in His blood, to declare His righteousness for the remission of sins that are past.” The Greek word here rendered “propitiation” is the identical one translated “Mercy-seat” in Hebrews 9:5. Romans 3, then, declares that in the gospel God presents Christ before us as the antitypical Mercy-seat.

It were better, because less ambiguous, if we rendered “Kapporeth” (the Hebrew word) by “Propitiatory” rather than Mercy-seat; the added light from the New Testament not only justifies, but requires this change. Christ is the Mercy-seat, but He is so by virtue of the propitiation which He offered to God. In 1 John 2:2 and 4:10 the Greek (in a different form from Romans 3:25) is rightly rendered “propitiation,” for in these verses the reference is to the Lord Jesus as the Sacrifice which pacifies God’s offended justice; but the word in Romans 3:25 is the one which is always employed in the Septuagint as the equivalent of “Kapporeth,” and is actually translated “Mercy-seat” in Hebrews 9:5. The Propitiatory was not the place where propitiation was made, but instead, the place where its abiding value was borne witness to before God. It is failure to mark this distinction which has resulted in so much confusion of thought.

The verb “to propitiate” signifies to appease, to placate, to make satisfaction. When, then, we read in Romans 3:25 that Christ is now set forth a Propitiatory, the evident meaning is that, through the Gospel, God now bears testimony to His blessed Son as the One by whom He was propitiated, the One by whom His holy wrath against the sins of His people was pacified, the One by whom the righteous demands of His law were satisfied, the One by whom every attribute of Deity was glorified. The type of Christ as “the propitiation for our sins” is the bleeding victim on the altar; the type of Christ as God’s resting place or Propitiatory is the Mercyseat within the veil. Christ has become God’s rest, in whom He can now meet poor sinners in all the fullness of His grace because of the propitiation made by Him on the cross.

The great propitiation which Christ made, and the propitiatory which is the result of it, were both borne witness to in the ritual of Israel’s annual Day of Atonement. This is described for us in Leviticus 16. Into the most interesting and important details of this chapter we cannot here enter; the one point bearing on our present theme being found in 5:14: “And he shall take of the blood of the bullock, and sprinkle it with his finger upon the Mercy-seat eastward, and before the Mercy-seat shall he sprinkle of the blood with his finger seven times.” The blood (obtained through the death of the animal — type of propitiation) told of judgment already visited upon the innocent substitute; the blood sprinkled on the Propitiatory announced that God had accepted the victim offered to Him; the blood sprinkled before the propitiatory secured a standing-ground in God’s presence. Once was sufficient for the eye of God; seven times grace suffered it to be sprinkled before the propitiatory, to assure us (who are so slow of heart to believe) of the perfectness of the standing-ground which Christ has procured for His people!


In the Tabernacle there was a table, but no chair for Aaron or any of the priests to sit on, because their work was never finished, needing constant repetition — emblematic of the fact that the one great Sacrifice, which would provide rest and satisfaction, was yet to come. But there was one seat, the Mercy-seat, reserved for Jehovah Himself, who sat there between the cherubim. This Mercy-seat, resting upon the Ark, foreshadowed the grand truth that God would find His rest in that perfect work which His incarnate Son should perform. The Mercy-seat, then, was God’s throne here on earth. “And thou shalt put the Mercy-seat above upon the Ark; and in the Ark thou shalt put the testimony that I shall give thee. And there I will meet with thee, and I will commune with thee from above the Mercy-seat, from between the two cherubim which are upon the Ark of the testimony, of all things which I will give thee in commandment unto the children of Israel” (vv. 21, 22).

The fact that the Mercy-seat formed God’s throne in the midst of Israel is referred to in quite a number of Old Testament passages. In 1 Samuel 4:4 we read, “So the people sent to Shiloh, that they might bring from thence the Ark of the covenant of the Lord of hosts, who dwelleth between the cherubim.” In 2 Samuel 6:2 it is said, “And David arose, and went with all the people that were with him from Baale of Judah to bring up from thence the Ark of God, whose name is called by the name of the Lord of hosts that dwelleth between the cherubim.” Hezekiah addressed his prayer to Jehovah as “O Lord God of Israel, which dwellest between the cherubim” ( 2 Kings 19:15).

The Psalmist cried, “Give ear, O Shepherd of Israel, Thou that leadest Joseph like a flock; Thou that dwellest between the cherubim, shine forth.” ( Psalm 80:1).

In Psalm 99:1 we are told, “The Lord reigneth; let the people tremble: He sitteth between the cherubiml let the earth be moved.”

But now the question arises, How was it possible for the thrice holy God to dwell in the midst of a sinful people? The answer is, On the ground of accepted sacrifice. His throne was a blood-sprinkled one. This is shown us in Leviticus 16:14, already quoted. The blood of the sin-offering was sprinkled upon that Mercy-seat which constituted Jehovah’s throne, and there that blood was left under His searching eye, as the abiding witness that the claims of His justice had been met, and that He could righteously dwell in the midst of a people who had broken His law — righteously, because their sin had been put away.

Now it is impossible to over-estimate the importance of thoroughly-settled views of God’s satisfaction in Christ. Many Christians never get beyond the fact, though a precious fact it is, that Christ’s death has procured and secured their life; and even this, in the case of many, is not maintained. The reason for this is that we listen so often to the dictates of our evil hearts of unbelief, which tell us that self must have a hand in the work of salvation, must contribute something to it — if not works, then feelings! But the truth is that God has entirely set aside ourself, and acted for Himself in saving us. God’s glory, and our salvation are indissoluably linked together.

Accordingly we ought not only to enjoy the assurance of our eternal security, but also enter into a deeper communion with God’s revealed thoughts concerning the power of Christ’s blood in relation to His Throne In Heaven! It is this which the Mercy-seat or Propitiatory particularly and so blessedly typifies.

The Mercy-seat, which formed God’s throne in Israel, then, directs our thoughts to the governmental aspect of the Atonement. Not only is it true that Christ died for sinners, but it is equally true — though in a different sense — that He died for God: He died in the stead of His sinful people, He died on behalf of the thrice holy God. Christ lived and died to make it possible for God to take hell-deserving sinners into fellowship with Himself, and that, consistently with His holiness and justice. He died to vindicate the character of God before all the intelligences of the universe.

He died that God’s throne might be established: “justice and judgment are the habitation (or “base”) of Thy throne” ( Psalm 89:14).

God’s throne is settled in Christ, because all the claims of God’s righteousness have been settled by Christ. The Antitype of this is most gloriously brought before us in Revelation 5:6: “And I beheld, and, lo, in the midst of the throne... stood a Lamb as it had been slain”!! “Whom God hath set forth a Propitiatory through faith in His blood to declare His righteousness” ( Romans 3:25).

To “declare” here signifies to make manifest, to proclaim and exhibit publicly. Divine righteousness requires that His law should be obeyed, and that its penalty should be enforced where its precepts have been broken.

Divine mercy could not be exercised at the expense of justice, The character of God as the Ruler of the universe was involved. But the Antitype of the Mercy-seat sets forth the precious fact that God’s avenging holiness was fully satisfied by the shedding of the blood of His Son on the cross. Justice instead of being reduced to the necessity of taking a part from the bankrupt, has received full payment from the bankrupt’s Surety and thus his deliverance is guaranteed. Thus Christ by His life of obedience “magnified the law and made it honorable” ( Isaiah 42:21), and by His death glorified all the Divine perfections. God’s love, grace, and mercy were manifested at Calvary as nowhere else; equally so were His holiness, justice and righteousness. For this reason, then, the Mercy-seat was made solely of pure gold — the Divine glory displayed. Propitiation has been made, and God points all to His Son, the Propitiatory, as the proof of it; just as the Mercy-seat with the blood sprinkled thereon attested that propitiation had been typically accomplished.


It is not without good reason, for there is nothing meaningless or even trivial in God’s Word, that the Holy Spirit has been pleased to give us the measurements of the Propitiatory. Its length was two and a half cubits and its breadth one cubit and a half. But nothing is told us of its thickness: does not this designed omission suggest what is recorded in <19A311> Psalm 103:112, “For as the heaven is high above the earth so great is His mercy toward them that fear Him”!

What, then, are we to learn from the measurements which are recorded?

This, its length and breadth were precisely the same as those of the Ark.

The dimensions speak clearly of the strict limitations which God has set to His saving grace. As another has said, “It is all very well to say ‘there’s a wideness in God’s mercy like the wideness of the sea,’ but it is much better to understand clearly what is signified by the words ‘two cubits and a half shall be the length, thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof.’

God’s mercy is, indeed, wide enough to take in every sinner who contritely presents himself at the appointed Mercy-seat, but it extends no further than that. The limits are Divinely established, and are unalterable.”

There are some who count upon the love of God apart from Christ and His atoning death, which is virtually to devise a Mercy-seat which is wider than the Ark. But this is a vain delusion. God’s grace reigns “through righteousness unto eternal life by Jesus Christ our Lord” ( Romans 5:21).

No grace can be shown unto any sinner apart from the redemptive blood of the Lord Jesus. “A just God and a Savior” ( Isaiah 45:21). Saving mercy is extended to none except those for whom Christ met the demands of Divine justice. There is much so-called Evangelism today which is condemned by the strictly defined dimensions of the Mercy-seat! Christ died not to make possible the salvation of the whole human race, but to make certain the salvation of God’s elect: He made “propitiation for the sins of the people” ( Hebrews 2:17. R.V.).


This was in the form of two cherubs, one on either end of the Mercy-seat, with wings outstretched over it, thus overshadowing and as it were protecting God’s throne. That there is some profound and important significance connected with the figures of the cherubim is clear from the prominent place which they occupy in the Divine description of the Mercyseat: if the student will reread Exodus 25:17-22 he will find that mention is made of them, either in the single or plural number, no less than seven times. Much has been written on the subject, but nothing we have seen is satisfactory.

The first time the “cherubim” are mentioned in Scripture is in Genesis 3:24, where they are viewed guarding the way to the tree of life, the “flaming sword,” seen in connection with them suggesting that they are associated with the administration of God’s judicial authority. In Revelation 4:6-8 (compare Ezekiel 1:5-10) we find them related to the throne of God. Revelation 5:11-14 indicates that the cherubim are the highest among the angelic order of creatures. In the Psalms and in Ezekiel the cherubim come before us in connection with judicial acts, with Divine interference in judgment, and this gives a striking significance to their place here on the Mercy-seat: God’s righteousness, nay, His wrath against sin, is seen to be of one piece with His mercy! God’s attributes do not conflict: light and love are but two sides of His nature!

On the Mercy-seat the two cherubim stood facing each other, attracted by a common object, heads bowed as in adoration. Their number speaks of competent witness. The subject is too vast for us to even outline here, but there is more than one hint in Scripture that the redemption of the Church is an object lesson unto the angels. 1 Corinthians 4:9 declares that the suffering apostles were “made a spectacle (theater) unto angels.” Ephesians 3:10 tells us that “the manifold wisdom of God is now being made known by (through) the Church unto the principalities and powers in the heavenlies.” 1 Peter 1:11,12 announces that the sufferings of Christ and His glories which were to follow are “things which the angels desire to look into.” We take it, then, that the figures of the two cherubim, with their bowed heads over the Mercy-seat, denote the interest of the angelic hierarchies in the unfolding of God’s redemptive purpose.


First , this comes out in the fact that the Mercy-seat completely hid from view the tables of stone which were kept in the Ark. As the cherubim stood there with their faces downward, they saw not those holy statutes which condemned their transgressors; instead, they gazed on that which spoke of the glory of God — Deity magnified by sacrifice. There was blood between the law and its Administrator and His executors!

Suppose an Ark with no Mercy-seat: the Law would then be uncovered: there would be nothing to hush its thunderings, nothing to arrest the execution of its righteous sentence. The law expresses God’s righteousness, and demands the death of its violator: “Cursed is everyone that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the Law to do them” ( Galatians 3:10).

Such is the inevitable judgment pronounced on all sinners by the inexorable sentence of the law. The only man who could stand before God on the basis of having kept that law was the Man Christ Jesus. He could have been justified by it, enthroned upon it, and from it have pronounced sentence of just doom on all of Adam’s guilty race. But He did not do so.

No; blessed be His name, instead of coming to earth as the Executioner of the law, He bared His holy bosom to its righteous sword. The same heart which held the law unbroken ( Psalm 40:8) received the penalty which was due His people for having broken it. The storm of wrath having spent itself upon Him, the law can no longer touch those who have fled to Him for refuge. It is of this that the blood-sprinkled Mercy-seat, covering the tables of stone within the Ark, so blessedly speaks.

A nation of transgressors could never stand before the naked law. An uncovered Ark furnishes naught but a throne of judgment. This supplies the key to a passage in the Old Testament that has puzzled many. When the Philistines sent back the Ark, which Jehovah had suffered to fall into their hands, we are told, “And He smote the men of Beth-shemesh, because they had looked into the Ark of the Lord, even He smote of the people fifty thousand and three score and ten men: and the people lamented, because the Lord had smitten many of the people with a gross slaughter. And the men of Beth-shemesh said, Who is able to stand before this holy Lord God?” ( 1 Samuel 6:19-20).

The sin which God here punished so severely was Israel’s daring to uncover what God had covered. In order to “look into the Ark” the Mercyseat had to be removed, and in removing it they exposed the Law, and thus severed mercy from judgment, the result of which must ever be, death for the guilty. The thrice holy God can only meet the guilty, polluted sinner, in Him by whom “righteousness and peace have kissed each other” ( Psalm 85:9). No man can draw near unto the Father but by Him.

Second , the Mercy-seat was the place where Jehovah met the sinner in the person of His representative: “And he (Aaron) shall take of the blood of the bullock, and sprinkle it with his finger upon the Mercy-seat eastward; and before the Mercy-seat shall he sprinkle of the blood with his finger seven times” ( Leviticus 16:14).

This tells us that Christ is the one appointed Meeting-place between God and His people, the place where-He meets with them not in judgment but in grace. But be it remembered that the typical Mercy-seat was in the holy of holies, hidden from the view of the sinner who desired to approach God.

So it is with the Antitype: God’s throne of grace is not visible to the eye of sense; it can be approached only by faith. Hence the exhortation of Hebrews 10, “Having therefore, brethren, boldness to enter into the holiest by the blood of Jesus, By a new and living way, which He hath newlymade for us, through the veil, that is to say, His flesh; and having an high priest over the house of God; Let us draw near with a true heart in full assurance of faith” (vv. 19-22).

Third, the Mercy-seat is the place of communion: “And there I will meet with thee, and I will commune with Thee from above the Mercy-seat, from between the two cherubim, which are upon the Ark of the testimony” ( Exodus 25:22). A beautiful example of this is furnished in Numbers 7:89: “And when Moses was gone into the Tabernacle of the congregation to speak with Him, then he heard the voice of One speaking unto him from off the Mercy-seat that was upon the Ark of testimony, from between the two cherubim: and he spake unto Him.”

Precious indeed is this. It is in the Lord Jesus that Christians have been brought into this place of inestimable blessing. Not only have we been brought nigh to God, but we are permitted to speak to Him and hear Him speaking to us. Having been reconciled to God by the death of His Son, He now says “I will commune with thee.” Wondrous grace is this! O that our hearts may enter into and enjoy this blessed privilege. Then “Let us come boldly unto the throne of grace.” There is nothing between: no sin, no guilt; and the veil has been rent. We may worship in the Holy of Holies!

Then “let us draw near in full assurance of faith.”


Source: An Exposition of Hebrews by A. W. Pink

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