Glory of Salvation

by Charles Hodge

"O the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable are his judgments and his ways past finding out. For who hath known the mind of the Lord? Or who hath been his counsellor? Or who hath first given to him and it shall be recompensed unto him again? For of him, and through him and to him are all things, to whom be glory forever. Amen." Romans 11:33–36

In the opening chapters of this Epistle the apostle takes a survey of the moral state of the world. He first turns his attention to the Gentiles, then as now constituting the vast majority of our race. He beheld and described them as alienated from God, given up to a reprobate mind, a prey to malignant and sensual passions, hateful and hating one another, without understanding, without natural affection, implacable, unmerciful. Such was and such still is the state of the heathen world.

The apostle turns from this appalling spectacle to the Jews, the peculiar people of God, to whom had been committed the divine oracles, to whom pertained the adoption, the glory and the covenants, and the giving of the law, and the service and the promises. This favoured nation though confident that they were a guide to the blind a light of them who were in darkness, an instructor of babes, did not teach themselves, nor govern their own lives by the rules they prescribed to others. None understood, none sought after God, all had gone out of the way, there was none that did good, no not one. Their throat was an open sepulchre, their mouth full of cursing, their feet swift to shed blood, there was no fear of God before their eyes.

Such was the condition and character of the whole human family, as it revealed itself to the eye of one divinely enlightened. From this view of the condition of men, the apostle drew two inferences. First, that the whole world is guilty before God, i.e. condemned, not only worthy of death but under that dreadful sentence of endless perdition. Second, that from this condition of sin and misery they could not by any possibility deliver themselves. The law under which they were placed, though holy, just and good, could do nothing more than convince them of their first exposure to the wrath of God. It could neither impact strength to deliver themselves from the inward power of sin, nor could it free them from the condemnation under which they groaned. All mankind, therefore, the whole world, were in this dreadful state of helpless sin and death. This was not their original condition. God created man in his own image, in knowledge, righteousness and holiness. The only solution to the question as to how this fearful change had been brought to pass, given by the apostle, is that it was by one man. By one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin, and so death passed on all men, for all sinned. It was by the offence of one that the many died. It was by one man's disobedience that the many were made sinners. This epistle opens therefore with a representation of a world of rational and immortal creatures, ruined by the sin of one man, brought by that sin into the condition of pollution, condemnation and helpless misery, which the apostles describes as the actual state of all mankind.

Having thus exhibited the last state of the world, the apostle presents the provision made for its salvation. The eternal son of God, through the great love wherewith he loved us, condescended to be made of a woman, to be made under the law, to fulfil all righteousness, to be made a propitiation for our sins, to satisfy divine justice so that God can be just in justifying the ungodly. This perfect righteousness of Christ, of which the law and the prophets alike spoke, is in the Gospel revealed for our acceptance. Men are called upon to acknowledge their sinfulness, the justice of their condemnation, to renounce all confidence in their own righteousness, and to submit themselves unto their righteousness provided for them by God and freely offered to them in the Gospel. All who do this are freely pardoned and regarded as righteous in the sight of God, on account of the righteousness of Christ imputed to them and received by faith alone.

They are thus free from the law, delivered from its sentence of condemnation, and from the obligation to fulfil its demands in their own person, as the condition of their acceptance with God. And notwithstanding their personal unworthiness are enabled and authorized to rejoice in the assurance of the favour of God, whose love, or the assurance of whose love is shed abroad in their hearts, by the Holy Ghost given unto them.

Being thus justified in virtue of their union with Christ, and reconciled to God, they become partakers of his life. The union between them and Christ their head is not merely a moral union of gratitude and sympathy, nor is it a mere federal or legal union, but it is spiritual and vital, analogous to that which exists between a vine and its branches, or the head and members of the same body. They are thus delivered from the inward dominion of sin, and transformed into the image of God, not by any mere natural or moral process of reformation through the energy of their own will or the objective power of the truth, but by the indwelling of the Holy Spirit derived from Christ an abiding principle of a new spiritual life. Of this life, the body no less than the soul, is a partaker, so that he that raised Christ from the dead, shall also quicken our mortal bodies through his spirit that dwelleth in us.

Those thus united to Christ and led by his Spirit are the sons of God, and if sons heirs, joint heirs with Christ. Being partakers of his life, hey are partakers of his glory and of his kingdom. Nothing can ever separate them from his love for whom he predestinates, he calls and whom he calls, he justifies and whom he justifies, he glorifies. It is thus, that as by one man's disobedience condemnation, corruption and death have come upon all man descended from Adam so by the righteousness of one, justification, holiness and eternal life come upon all who are united to Christ. Our union with Adam is a natural and federal union established in the wise, sovereign and mysterious counsel of God. Our union with Christ is, in one important sense voluntary, offered by faith and is therefore, with all its benefits confined to believers.

The apostle having thus set forth the plan of salvation, now speaks of its administration. The main design of God, he teaches us regarding the mode of administration of the plan of salvation is to exhibit it in its truth as gracious. As we are saved by grace, everything is done to make that grace conspicuous and acknowledged. It is of grace that God interposed at all for the salvation of men, he was not bound to do it as a matter of justice. Of course it rested entirely with him as to whom and how many he would save. The terms on which he saves them are the renunciation of all claims founded on their own merits and placing their confidence in the merits of Christ. The power by which they are renewed, sanctified, preserved and finally brought to heaven is grace, i.e. an influence flowing from a source out of themselves, and to which they have no claim, and on which they are entirely dependent. To make all this apparent God acts as a sovereign in the administration of the economy of redemption. It was at first revealed very obscurely slowly, knowledge of it seemed likely to perish. He called Abraham from all his kindred as his deposits. He chose Isaac instead of Ishmael; Jacob instead of Esau, in order to show he had mercy on whom he would have mercy, and compassion on whom he would have compassion. When Christ came, it was only a remnant accordingly to the election of grace who were called from among the Jews. The rest of the nation was cast off and the Gospel was given to the Gentiles. When preached to them, it was not the wise, the mighty or noble whom God called, but the foolish, the weak and the despised, in order that no flesh should glory in his presence. And when he has thus in his sovereignty gathered a people from among the gentiles, he will turn to his long forgotten, persecuted, and down trodden people and bring them back into his kingdom. Before the advent the Gentiles were given up to unbelief; when Christ came the Jews were thus cast off and the gentiles called hereafter the Jews through our mercy are to obtain mercy. Thus God hath concluded, or given over all to unbelief, first the gentiles, then the Jews, that he might have mercy upon all, or that his dispensations towards all may be a manifestation of his sovereign undeserved kindness.

It is in view of this representation of God's dealings with our race, of the moral state of man, of the plan of salvation, and of its administration, that the apostle exclaims "O the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable are his judgments this ways are past finding out. For who hath known the mind of the Lord? Or who hath been his counsellor? Or who hath first given to him and it shall be recompensed unto him again? For of him, and through him, and to him are all things; to whom be glory forever. Amen.

There are certain characteristics of the dispensations of God in reference to the human race here referred to, on which it may, with the divine blessing, be profitable for us to meditate

1. Their mysteriousness. In considering how God had dealt, and was still dealing with men, the apostle exclaims, "How unsearchable are his judgments and his ways are past finding out."

It seems to be a law of our minds to seek for unity and consistency in all our knowledge. We are not content with knowing that things are, but are instinctively led to ask, how and why they are and how they can be reconciled and harmonized one with another. To this law of our nature the progress, compass and order of human knowledge are in a great measure to be referred. So strong is this tendency, so uneasy is the mind under the necessity of receiving apparently inconsistent facts, such is its craving not only to know but to understand, and such alas! Its pride of intellect, that it spurns s… and chafes under the limitations imposed upon it. It exalts itself into the position of a judge refusing to submit to receive as true, even on adequate evidence, what it cannot harmonize with other truths, and renounces the allegiance due from the lowest of finite intelligences to the infinite wisdom and rectitude of God. In other words, the natural tendency of man is to rationalism, to make his own understanding the source, the judge and standard of all truth receiving nothing on authority, nothing on trust, and nothing that cannot prove itself and so understand as to be able to clear from difficulties and reduce into system. No man under the dominion of this spirit can be a Christian. God's judgments are unsearchable and his ways are past finding out. We must either consent to bow down before him in silent acquiescence in the truth of his declarations and in the justice of his dispensations on the simple ground that they are his, and he is God, and therefore must be true and just or we must renounce the Bible. We cannot set our compasses and make out the bounds within which God's word or providence must move. We cannot reduce all his revelations and all his doings to within the grasp of our understandings. Clouds and darkness are round about him. Touching the Almighty we cannot find him out. Great central facts are plain as facts, and as far as they concern our conduct are sufficiently intelligible. But the moment we attempt either to trace them to their source in order to account for them, or to bring them into harmony with other facts, we are arrested by impenetrable darkness. We may plunge into it but we cannot dissipate it.

We may take for illustration the first of the great facts to which the apostle Paul in this epistle refers viz., the universal and total depravity of man, this consequent condemnation and helplessness. As a fact nothing can be more certain. If consciousness and observation unite their testimony is in its support. No man can turn his attention to the state of his heart or to his life without the conviction of sin forcing itself upon his mind. He may assume the lowest moral standard his conscience can tolerate and he will find that if judged even by that rule, he is a sinner, and being a sinner, worthy of death. And he will find too, in close contact with this conviction of sin, a consciousness of such weakness, that he can neither adequately atone for the past nor keep his conscience free from defilement for the future. Entirely irrespective of the question of how he came into this state of sin and helplessness and independent and even in despite of any theory of responsibility he may have formed, he cannot free himself from this sense of guilt and weakness. His own heart condemns and God, he is well aware, is greater than our hearts and knoweth all things. What consciousness thus assures with regard to ourselves, observation proves to be true with regard to others. We have never seen a man free from sin. History preserves the record of no sinless nation, tribe, or family. On the contrary, the history of the world is little else than the history of sin. To these sources of evidence we have the infallible authority of Him who sees the heart and who has declared with regard to the race that there is none good, no not one. As to this fact therefore there can be no doubt. But when we attempt to account for this appalling fact or to ask how it can be reconciled with absolute supremacy and the infinite goodness of God or with his severe denunciations against an evil which not one of all the millions of men has escaped, we are enveloped in clouds and darkness. No solution of this great, great mystery has ever been discovered. It is now as profound a secret as it was 1,000 years ago. The solutions which have been proposed only increase the difficulty. They either deny sin or they deny God. They either destroy our sense of the universality, turpitude and the power of the evil or they confound all our ideas of a holy and infinite God. Still the fact remains and God remains. Almighty holiness and a world of sinners, we can deny neither. We can reason neither out of existence nor out of our faith. We cling instinctively to our confidence in God, we know he must do right though his judgments are unsearchable and his ways past finding out.

Or if we turn to the plan of redemption, we shall still find the footsteps of God enveloped in impenetrable darkness. The very person of the Redeemer, God and man, the centre core and essence of our faith, without which Christianity is a corpse. Our confidence, joy and life, the belief of which alone makes us Christians, and without which it would be useless to be a Christian and the person of Christ, is the greatest of all mysteries. It is the great mystery of godliness that God is manifest in the flesh. Having from our infancy been accustomed to think of the two things in connection with divine and human nature, we are not fully sensible of the infinite distance between them or what a mystery it is that they should be united in one person. This however, is but the initial wonder of redemption. The substitution of Christ in the place of sinners, his vicarious obedience and sufferings, the nature of his union with believers by which his righteousness becomes available is not only for their pardon but also their justification. They become partakers of his life in all matters of faith and of light; matters which must be received upon the authority of God and which cannot be brought within the grasp of our understanding. The judgments of God in reference to the whole nature of the plan of redemption, are unsearchable and his ways past finding out.

Seeing however, that God has thus permitted the apostasy and ruin of our whole race and seeing that he has made such mysterious provision for its recovery, what a relief it would be to our minds struggling under the pressure of so much that is incomprehensible, if the economy of redemption were only administered on some intelligible principle; if we could only see the reasons of God's dispensations, could reconcile them with our conceptions of his character. No one, we presume, will hesitate to admit that as to the administration of the plan of salvation, God's thoughts are not as our thoughts nor his ways as our ways. We could not have confined for 4,000 years the knowledge that there was to be a Redeemer to one and that among the smallest of the nations of the earth. We would want to have so ordered things that when the Redeemer appeared, instead of being despised and rejected, every knee would have bowed before him, every tongued confessed that He was Lord, the Son of God and Saviour of the world. And instead of allowing the Gospel to draw itself by imperceptible degrees around the world, we would have sent the glad tidings on angels' wings to every human family and given it a glad reception in every human heart. God has done the reverse of all this. He left the world in darkness and sin for 4,000 years. When Christ came, he was rejected by the whole Jewish people, save a chosen remnant, and since that time, he has sent the light of truth first to one people, then to another according to his sovereign pleasure. And among those to whom it is known, he allows it to be to thousands a savour of death. Here and there it takes effect. Those who experience its power know as well as they know their existence that it is of God and not of themselves that they are the worshippers of light instead of being blasphemers and persecutors. The only solution of all this is, "Even so, Father for so it seems good in thy sight."

Now the rationalist comes and tells us there is no difficulty in all this, that God's judgments are not unsearchable, nor his ways past finding out. When he undertakes to make everything perfectly plain and intelligible and admits nothing as truth which he cannot thus reduce to reason, when he professes to account for the origin of sin and its universal prevalence to make the person of Christ and the work of redemption simple, nothing of mystery remains about them. And to show that the dispensations of God towards nations and individuals are all determined by perfectly intelligible laws of moral government, we feel that relief from the pressure can be obtained only at the expense of our faith in the Gospel. That is, to get rid of difficulties we must get rid of truth, for the truths which Paul taught were so beset with difficulties that his only relief was confidence in God. When we look on the heavens at night everything to the eye of sense is disorder and confusion, a meaningless mass of luminous spots. To an eye enlightened they are ordered worlds, moving to a hair's heath in their prescribed paths, seen and understood however, only within narrow limits. All beyond is nebulous darkness. When a pedlar comes with his planetarium and tells us that is the universe, and makes it all intelligible to the understanding of a child, we bid him take away his toy and leave us to wonder ownership where we cannot understand. It is only by reducing the great truths and facts of the sacred Scripture to the narrow limits of human reason, i.e. by destroying their very nature that men endeavour to get rid of mysteries. If God is infinite he must be incomprehensible, if his wisdom and knowledge are infinite, his judgments must be to us unsearchable and his ways past finding out. And if the Gospel is a revelation of that wisdom, it must be like the universe perfectly plain and intelligible as far as is necessary for our guidance, while it stretches out in every direction far beyond the grasp of our feeble powers. The man therefore who acts in the principle of believing nothing which he cannot prove, or which he cannot explain and reconcile, cannot be a Christian.

2. The scheme of doctrine unfolded by the apostle is not only characterized by its profoundness and mystery, as opposed to bald rationalism but also by the absolute supremacy and sovereignty which it ascribes to God. Who hath known the mind of the Lord? Or who hath been his counsellor? Or who hath first given to him and it shall be recompensed to him again?

The truth here contemplated is presented under two aspects. 1) God is absolutely independent of his creatures and 2) We can in no way place God under any obligation to us. When it is said that God is independent of his creatures, it is not meant merely that they are not necessary to his perfection or happiness but that in his knowledge, determinations and acts, he needs no counsellor and receives no aid. He does not derive knowledge from his creatures, He does not know things because they are, but they are, because he knows and determines them to be. His determinations also are not suspended on the acts of his creatures, but the acts of the creature on his determinations for he foreordains whatsoever comes to pass. This is only saying that the concatenation of events is not determined by fate, nor by blind unconscious nature, nor by chance, nor by the finite knowledge and wayward will of man, but by the infinite intelligence, wisdom goodness and power of God. He governs all his creatures and all their actions in a way consistent at once with their nature and his own perfections. And finally, he is independent of his creatures because the ultimate ground or reason of all his acts is in himself and not in them. The final ground of all he does is the good pleasure of his will, hat will however, is the sum of all wisdom and excellence. In saying, therefore, that the grounds of God's acts are in himself and not in the creature, we only say they are determined by infinite wisdom and goodness.

And when, in reference to the other aspect of the truth here contemplated, we say that men can place God under no obligation, it is not meant merely that they owe their existence and all their powers to Him, but that they can merit nothing, and of themselves do nothing that places God under any obligation to grant them his favour. It is not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that showeth mercy.

Of these two truths, the independence of God and the dependence of man, or of the one comprehensive truth, the supremacy and sovereignty of God, the scheme of doctrine unfolded in this epistle is a perpetual illustration. The same truths before referred to as exhibiting the mysterious character of the judgments and ways of God may no less appropriately be cited in proof of his supremacy and sovereignty. Why was Adam permitted to fall? Why did his apostasy involve his whole race in ruin? Why was salvation provided for man, when the fallen angels were allowed to perish? Why was the knowledge of salvation for ages confined to the Jews? Why is the Gospel now given to one nation and not to another? Why were we born in a Christian and protestant country and not among the heathen or papists? Why are our names enrolled among the worshippers of Christ instead of our being among those who trample on the blood of the covenant as an unholy thing? There is but one answer to all these questions and that is found in the sovereignty of God. It was not because Adam was worse than those angels who kept their first estate that God left him to the freedom of his own will. It was not that apostate man were better than apostate angels that salvation was provided for the one and not for the other. It was not because the Jews were better than other nations or Europeans than Asians that the saving truth was given to the former and not to the latter. And surely it is not because we are better than our neighbours that we are in the Church, and they out of it. The reason of all these dispensations must he taught in the supremacy and sovereignty of God who gives to everyone severally as he wills. He is at once just and gracious. Those whom be passes by suffer nothing but what is in strictest equity deserved while those whom he visits with his grace find nothing in themselves to account for his distinguishing goodness.

Again, the nature of the scheme of redemption as unfolded by the apostle is an illustration of the truth that we cannot place God under obligation. It is a provision for the undeserving and the helpless. The grounds on which it professes pardon and acceptance exclude the idea of merit. It sets forth the righteousness of Christ as the only ground of justification before God that righteousness cannot be accepted without a renunciation of all dependence upon anything in ourselves. It represents men as dead in trespasses and sins. It holds forth the Holy Spirit as given for Christ's sake and through him, as the only source of holiness and life. It declares faith dependence to be gifts of God. That is, meekness, temperance, hope, love and all other Christian virtues as graces and the fruits of an undeserved divine influence on our hearts, so that the Christian is what he is not in virtue of anything in himself but by the grace of God. By the grace of God, says the apostle, I am what I am.

There is no characteristic of the Gospel more prominently presented or more and strenuously insisted upon than this. And there is no purpose of God more distinctly avowed than not to permit any man to glory in his presence. He that glories must glory in the Lord. It is to him he must ascribe the provision and revelation of salvation, become acquainted with the truth. It is to his and not to his own merit that he is pardoned and accepted, to his grace and not to his own will that he is a penitent and a believer and to the undeserved continuance of that grace that he is preserved from apostasy and sin. So that absolute dependence upon God and entire indebtedness to him for our salvation are taken for granted in the whole scheme of redemption. He is everywhere represented as supreme and sovereign and men as undeserving and helpless, (recipients of the blessings which he in his wisdom and grace sees fit to bestow). He does all things after the council of his own will. For who hath known the mind of the Lord? Or who hath been his counsellor? Or who hath first given to him and it shall be recompensed to him again?

3. A third characteristic of the scheme of doctrine developed by the apostle is that it makes God all in all. For from him, through him and to him are all things; and to him be glory forever. Amen.

Everything is, in the first place, referred to God as the great first cause. He devised the whole scheme of creation, providence and redemption. It had its origin in the eternal councils of his will. To his power all creatures owe their existence and their powers. Nothing is, but because he determined it to be. In the second place, it is by his omnipresent power and wisdom that all things are carried on and controlled and in the third place, it is to him, to the manifestation of his glory, that they all send as their last and highest end.

As this is true of the universe as a whole, so it is especially sure of the plan of redemption. It was the un-suggested council of his own will. It was a … hid for ages or from eternity in God. He devised the whole plan and gradually unfolded it to the admiration of principalities and powers in heavenly places by the dispensations of his grace. In the execution of this plan everything is through him. It is by his sovereign power and authority everything is done and his efficiency gives success to all the means of his own appointment.…13 And to him and to him alone, the infinite God, the Father, Son and Spirit, the glory consequent on the consummation of this plan, must accrue. He is the last and highest end. It is not therefore either the happiness or the holiness of his creatures which God has proposed as the great object either of creation or redemption, but his own glory, the outward manifestation of his inward excellence. This is the highest conceivable end of all things; that to which all creatures are directed to strive, that which the blessed Redeemer always proposed to himself; and which from the fact that it is the highest and the best secures and comprehends within itself all other right ends.

The doctrines discussed by the apostle in this epistle concerning the apostasy and moral state of man, the plan of redemption and mode in which that plan is administered, filled his mind with adoring wonder. He saw that they transcended human reason, that they could not be brought down, snapped off or dissected into a regular logically system intelligible to the understanding. They appeared to him as manifestations of a being whose judgments are unsearchable and whose ways are past finding out. He saw in them the exhibition of the supremacy and sovereignty of God and the dependence of man. And he rejoiced to acknowledge and recognize that they set forth God as all in all, the beginning and the end, the alpha and omega, from whom, through whom and to whom are all things. If the exposition of the text now given be correct it may do the following:

a. Serve as a test of character. The sacred Scriptures teach that the effect of conversion is to bring the mind into conformity with truth. The renewed soul, just in portion to which it is enlightened, sees the excellence and propriety of the representations of the Bible concerning the character and ways of God. Sympathy, therefore with divine truth is evidence of conversion and repugnance to that truth is evidence of an un-renewed heart. This of course is true only of what really belongs to the word of God and is sure in reference to all the doctrines of that word in proportion to their importance. There are certainly few clearer indications of a mind being unreconciled to God than malignant opposition to what God declares himself to be or to what he claims as his rightful prerogative. If therefore it is true that God's judgments are unsearchable and his ways past finding out, if he claims to be a sovereign in the distribution of his favours, to be independent of his creatures and especially of sinful man, if he has presented his glory as the highest end of all things and held it up as the great object to which we should aim, then a rationalistic spirit is an unChristian spirit. That hard, logical, uncompromising temper that follows out a principle to all its results despite the protest of our moral nature and the authority of the word of God, makes both bend to the remorseless authority of the speculative understanding, feeble and erring as it is, the very opposite to that childlike temper which Christ declares to be necessary for admission into the kingdom of heaven.

Then too, an explicit of self-justification and of self-righteousness and self-dependence, a disposition to claim pardon, a grace or heaven as due to our merits or our efforts, is opposed to the Gospel, that represents man as undeserving and dependent and God as rightfully a sovereign in the distribution of his favours.

And then also, and then especially, if the glory of God does not appear to us the highest and most worthy object to which all others must be made subordinate and to which they should be made to give place, we are out of sympathy with God and Christ and with all holy beings.

b. This subject is no less a test of doctrines than of character.

As sympathy with the truth is an evidence of conversion and repugnance to the truth an evidence of an un-renewed heart; so the conformity or opposition of any particular doctrine with leading principles of the sacred Scripture is a criterion of its truth or error. If a doctrine purposes to do away with all that is mysterious in religion, to adjust it all to the standard of common sense and bring it all within the compass of understanding or militate with the gratuitous nature of salvation or sovereignty of God, or if its tendency is to exalt man and lead him to place confidence in himself, then it is out of keeping with the sacred Scripture and cannot be true.

c. If the doctrines above stated are sure, their practical effect must be good.

It must he healthful to the soul to be brought under their influence. It must tend to subdue pride, and every other sin, and promote humility, reverence and confidence in God and all other Christian graces to be brought to contemplate the unsearchableness of the judgments and ways to God, to look up to Him as a sovereign on whose grace we are entirely dependent and to regard his glory as the highest possible object of desire and pursuit. And further if these doctrines be true they must furnish safe and proper rules for the guidance of those who desire to be saved. If salvation is of grace, it must be sought as a gravity which may be righteously withheld and not as or matter to be merited or earned. If God is a sovereign in dispensing his grace then he must be acknowledged as such by those who would obtain his favour. If men are not only condemned but helpless, then their first step towards salvation is fully to feel and acknowledge their true condition. In short, the state of mind which these doctrines are adopted to produce is the very state to which God promises eternal life. Instead therefore of quarrelling with the mysteriousness of the Gospel or with the sovereignty of God; or with the gratuitous nature of salvation; let us submit to all God's demands and consent to be saved on his own terms and to his glory. If we thus yield ourselves to him, he will glorify himself in our salvation. For he saves all who are willing to be saved on the terms which he has proposed.


Preached in the chapel, Jan. 24, 1847.

Dr. Cuyler's, March 21, 1847.

Dr. Potts, N. Y. April 25, 1847.

Dr. Krebs, N. Y. Feb. 20, 1848.

Second Church Princeton, June 1848

Dr. Davidson N. B. Feb. 25, 1849.

Dr. Phillips N., Y. March 11, 1849

Mr. Schenck, Oct. 28, 1849.

Lawrenceville June 9, 1850.

Mr. Lee, Rahway Jan. 26, 1851.

Chapel Feb. 16, 1851.

Second Church, Princeton, July 31, 1853

Dr. Majie, July 30, 1854.

Seminary Chapel, Feb. 24, 1854.

Seminary Chapel Oct. 14, 1860.

Seminary Chapel Sept. 5th, 1869.

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