by John Brown of Wamphray
As concerning the point of Universal Redemption, we finde various sentiments, or various explications of the matter, given to us by Adversaries; for they do not all agree in their apprehensions of the thing. Some explaine the matter thus, God sent his only begotten Son to be a Redeemer and Propitiator for Adam and all his Posterity; who by his death did pacifie an angry God, and restore Mankinde to their lost inheritance; so as all, who are now condemned, are not condemned for their former sins and guilt; for Christ hath abundantly satisfied for these; but for their Unbeleef, for not beleeving in the Redeemer of the world, and for rejecting the Reconciliation made, & the grace of God declared in the word. And thus, they must say, that Christ hath died for all sinnes, but Unbeleefe; and that salvation doth not certainly follow upon this Reconciliation; and so that it is rather a Reconciliableness, than a Reconciliation; and they must necessarily maintaine, that this matter is revealed unto all and every son of Adam, who otherwise cannot be guilty of Rejecting this reconciliation, other wayes it shall be of no advantage to them; unless they say, that the want of the Revelation putteth them out of a capacity of being guilty of Unbeleefe; and so they must necessarily be saved; and thus their condition shall be undoubtedly better, than is the condition of such, as hear the Gospel; and then the revelation of the Gospel shall be no Favour, but a Prejudice rather. And in reference to this, they devise an Universal Antecedanious Love, whereby God, out of his Infinite Goodness, was inclined to desire the happiness and salvation of every mothers son; and therefore to send his Son to die for: as if God had such Natural & Necessary Inclinations; and as if all his Love to Mankinde, and every appointment of his concerning us, were not the free act of his good pleasure; and as if there were any such Antecedent & Conditional will in God, that could or might have no issue or accomplishment, but as Lord Freewill would; and as if the Love that sent Christ, were only such a Poor Conditional Inclination towards all Mankinde, which the Scripture holdeth forth, as the greatest of Loves, & as the ground or all the Effects & Grants, which mans full Salvation calleth for. But why could not this Love effectuat the good of all? Therefore, they tell us, that Justice being injured by sin, unless it were satisfied, that Love of God, whereby he wisheth well to all sinners, could effectuat nothing, as to the recovery of any: & upon this ground they imagine, Christ was sent to make an Universal Atonement; & so, Justice, being satisfied, might not obstruct the salvation of any, whose Freewill would consent unto termes of new to be proposed.
Others hold forth the matter thus [Christ, according to the eternal Counsel of God, did properly die for this end, and by his propitiatory sacrifice obtaine, that all and every man, who beleeve in Him, should for his sake actually obtaine Remission of sins, & Life Eternal; but others, in case they would Repent & Beleeve, might obtaine it.] But thus we hear no word of Christs obtaining any thing to any in particular; no word of his obtaining Faith & Repentance: and what Counsel of God can this be, to send Christ to die for persons, upon that condition, which he knew they would not & could not performe? And what by this meanes hath Christs Propitiatory Sacrifice obtained more, than a meer possibility of salvation, to either one or other? Shall we imagine, that God designeth good to persons, who shall never enjoy it? Or that God hath Conditional Intentions & Designes? By this means, Christs death was designed, and no person designed thereby to be saved, yea Christ should be designed to die, and that for no certain end, unless to procure a meer possibility, by stopping the mouth of justice, that it should not stand in the way: but then we can not say, that God sent Christ to die for any man, much less for all.
Others express the matter thus [Christ, out of the gracious Decree & Purpose of God, did undergoe death, that he might procure & obtaine Reconciliation with God for all sinners whatsomever, without any difference, before that God would open againe the door of salvation, & enter into a new Covenant of Grace with sinners.] But this Reconciliation hath no more force, or import, but that God might enter againe into a Covenant with sinners: and so there is no Actual Reconciliation of sinners unto God. And all that is obtained, is for God, & nothing for man, save a Possibility of Salvation by a new Covenant; nor are we told, whether Christ hath satisfied for the breach of the First Covenant, so that that sin is fully pardoned unto all; or not, untill the condition of the second Covenant be performed: nor are we told, upon what account the sins against the second Covenant are pardoned; Or if they be unpardonable.
Others explaine the matter thus [Christ died for all and every man, not only that God might, without any violation of Justice, enter into a new Covenant with sinners, upon what condition he pleased; but that it should be upon this Condition, that man should be united with Christ the Cautioner: and not only, that Redemption & Salvation should be possible to all, but that really & most certainly Salvation should be bestowed on such, as Christ thought good.] But seing Christ knew, that his death would profite none, but these few, whom he had designed, to what purpose should he have laid downe his life for the rest? And how can his death be a price of Redemption for the rest? How can Christ be said to satisfie for the rest? Did he purchase Faith to these few; and would he not purchase Faith to the rest, & yet lay downe the great price for them? What was the end obtained for the rest? was it only a Possible Call of all, Justice be in satisfied? But of what import could that Possible Call be, if Salvation was not also possible unto them? And whereunto is that Call? They will not say, it is unto Salvation, but to Faith: But did not Christ know, that this call would not be obeyed by them? Did he procure Grace unto them, to obey it? then he procured Faith, and if he procured Faith, than he procured Salvation. Againe, if Justice be satisfied for these others, why are they not liberat? If they say, the new Condition is not fulfilled. Then it cannot be simply said, that Christ satisfied Justice on their behalfe, for he knew before hand, that these would not performe the new Condition; how can he then be supposed tο die for them notwithstanding?
Thus we see what difference is among men, that hold Universal Redemption, about the Proper & Immediat End & Aime, of the purpose of God, in sending Christ to die; and of Christ in comeing to die: and how, for the most part, it cometh all to little, or nothing, for it was, saith Arminius, That God might save sinners, what way it pleased Him, his Justice, which stood in the way, being satisfied, or as Corvinus: That God might will to save sinners, & That Christ intended by his death, to make such satisfaction to justice, as that he might obtaine to himself power of saving upon what Condition the Father pleased. And thus Christ is said to have obtained Reconciliation & Redemption to all, not that they should actually be partakers thereof, but that God, his justice now being satisfied, might prescribe a Condition, which when they had performed, he might & would actually make them partakers thereof: Some say, that all men are put into a new Covenant, in which Adam was a common person, as well, as in the old, by vertue whereof, none shall be damned that do not sin actually against the Condition, & fall thereby from that new state, whereunto they are borne. And this opinion differeth not much from that of Jacobus Andreæ at the conference at Mompelgard, which afterward Huberus maintained (as Kimedoncius sheweth, in his refutation of the same) which was this in short, [That Christ suffered & died for all, none excepted, Effectually, and obtained for all a Reconciliation, without any respect to Faith, or Unbeleefe; so that all who receive this Reconciliation & continue in it, shall be saved, but as to those who refuse it by unbeleef, it is made null, and they perish.] Others say, [That Christ by his satisfaction removed Original sin in all, so that all Infants, dying in infancy, are undoubtedly saved.] Others [that he died for all sinnes alike, but conditionally.] Some say, [that after the price was payed, it was absolutely undetermined, what condition should be prescribed; so as God might have re-established the Covenant of works:] Others, [that the procuring of a new way was part of the fruit of Christ's death.] As for this condition, some say, [that man can performe it with the help of such meanes, as God affordeth to all] and thus establish the Diana of Freewill. But others [assert the necessity of grace flowing from election hereunto,] and so destroy Universal Redemption, which yet they assert. So that some say [Christ died for all Conditionally, if they beleeve] making the Act the cause of its own object; for Faith with them is a beleeving that Christ died for them. Some say [that he died for all Absolutely; Yet so as they partake not of the benefite, until they performe the Condition, which was to be prescribed;] and thus they affirme, that Christ did no more sustaine the persons of the Elect, than of the Reprobat, but of all alike. If we enquire therefore, what was the Immediat Result & Product of the death of Christ, they agree not to tell us, whether it was a Power, or a Will, or a Right, to God, to save any he pleased.
However all the Arminians & Camero with them agree in this. That Christ did not purchase faith for any: and that as to all (say some) or as to the most part (say others) Christ hath only procured a Possibility of Salvation: And what is this Possibility? Some call it an Exemption from that necessity of perishing, under which they came by the violation of the former Covenant, if a satisfaction had not interveened; and by this Exemption, they say, it cometh to passe, that Christ, if he will, justice being now satisfied, may bring all to life: And hereby also, say they, all may be saved, if they will: But what is this else then a meer Possibility? What efficacy hath it, seing notwithstanding thereof, all may perish againe? They say, it is really Efficacious as to this Possibility, which was not, before Justice was satisfied: But yet notwithstanding of this Efficacious Possibility, it might come to passe, that not one should have been saved: for how can salvation be possible without faith? So that if faith be not hereby purchased, it would seem, that Salvation is not possible. And further, it doth hereby appear, that all which is procured, is but some power to God & to Christ; But what is mans advantage? They say, That a way to life is opened unto man, that so he may now come to God by Faith & Repentance. But how can he come, who hath no power to Beleeve or Repent, without grace? Or is it in corrupt mans power to Beleeve or Repent?
What that truth is, which we stand for, is plainly & fully enough set downe in several places of Our Confession of Faith: as Chap. 3. §. 6. As God hath appointed the elect unto glory; so hath he, by the Eternal and most free purpose of his Will, fore ordained all the meanes thereunto. Wherefore they who are Elected, being fallen in Adam, are redeemed by Christ, are effectually called unto faith in Christ by his Spirit, working in due season; are Justified, Adopted, Sanctified, & Keeped by his power through faith unto salvation. Neither are other Redeemed by Christ, effectually Called, Justified, Adopted, Sanctified & Saved; but the Elect only. So Chap. 8. §. 1. It pleased God, in his eternal purpose, to chose & ordaine the Lord Jesus, his only begotten Son, to be the mediator between God & man.—Unto whom he did from all eternity give a people to be his seed, and to be by him in time Redeemed, Called, Justified, Sanctified & Glorified. And ibid. §. 5. The Lord Jesus by his perfect obedience, & sacrifice of himself; which he through the eternal Spirit, once offered up unto God, hath fully satisfied the Justice of his Father, & purchased, not only Reconciliation, but an Everlasting inheritance in the Kingdom of heaven, for all those, whom the Father hath given unto him. So ibid. §. last, To all those, for whom Christ hath purchased Redemption, he doth certanely and effectually apply & communicate the same, making intercession for them, & revealing unto them, in & by the word, the mysteries of salvation, effectually perswading them by his Spirit to beleeve & obey; and governing their hearts by his word & Spirit, overcoming all their enemies by his Almighty power & wisdom, in such manner & wayes, as are most consonant to his wonderful & unsearchable dispensations. Our judgment is this, in short, That Christ, according to the good pleasure of his Father, laid downe his life a Ransome for the Elect only, who were given to him to save from Wrath, and Destruction; and by that price purchased Salvation, & all the Meanes necessary thereunto, for them only to whom in due time, & after the method, which he thinketh best, doth effectually apply the same unto them, & actually save them.
Though grounds sufficient, considering the places of Scriptures, annexed in the margine of the Confession, confirming all, are clearly hinted & laid downe, in these passages cited; yet I shall, with what brevity is possible, point forth our grounds in plaine termes. And (1.) The Scripture is full & plaine, in holding forth a Covenant betwixt Jehova, and the Mediator, a transaction concerning man; or the purposes of God concerning the Salvation of Man, in way of a mutual Compact; both for our better understanding of that solide ground of our Peace & Hope, & for the confirming of our staggering & weak Faith. And though the full explication & confirmation hereof, would, I judge, fully undermine & destroy the rotten grounds of Socinians & Arminians, and of all, who are for the Diana of Freewill, and enemies to the Grace of God; yet I cannot digresse thereunto here; and shall only referre such, as would see the same confirmed, unto Mr. Dickfons Therapeutica sacra, & Mr. Rutherfords book upon the Covenant. Taking it therefore for granted, till what is by these Worthies said anent it, be confuted; and finding, that Arminius himself in his Orat. de Sacerdotio Christi, saith, there was a Covenant betwixt the Lord & Christ, I shall but shortly inferre therefrom, That it is repugnant to reason, to say, that the result of that Eternal Transaction: and the whole intended by it, was only to procure a meer Possibility of Salvation; and that such a Possibility, as that though it was equally for all; yet it might so fall out, that not one person should be saved, among all the sones of Adam. How unreasonable is it to imagine such a bargane betwixt the Father and the Son, as among men, considering what they are doing, can have no place? If Christ was to see his seed, by vertue of this Contract, then certainly God had a special eye and respect unto that seed; and that seed must be distinguished from all the rest, for it cannot be all, else all should be saved: and so Christ did not undertake to buy all, nor did the Father give him all, for his seed: and in reference to that seed, the Redemption purchased must be an Actual, & not a meer Potential, or Possible Redemption; and the Lord must have full Power & Dominion over the Will of that Seed, whereby he may determine their hearts unto a following of the Method, which he was to prescribe; and all these meanes, whereby this actual Closeing with the Conditions was to be effectually wrought, must have been secured: for a transaction betwixt persons, infinite in Wisdom, must of necessity be, in all things, contrived in deep Wisdom. So then, if by vertue of this Covenant, a seed was ensured to Christ, it was these concerning whom the transaction was made; for what interest could others have in this, or advantage by it? And so the Redemption was neither Universal; nor yet meerly Possible, & no more.
Againe (2.) The Scripture every where pointeth out the end of Christs coming & dying, to have been, to procure & Obtaine some good to man; it were endless to cite the Scriptures speaking this out plainely: But if it had been only to have procured a Possibility, then the proper & immediat end of his dying, had been only to have procured something to God, viz. a Power to Him, that he might, without hurt to his Justice, prescribe a possible way of salvation. Now, not to discusse that question, agitated among Orthodox Divines, viz. whether it was impossible for God to have pardoned the sins of man, without a satisfaction made by his Son, or not; meaning antecedently to a decree, determineing this way of manifestation of the Justice of God; only I must say, that as yet I can see nothing from Scripture, determineing the egresses of the Relative Justice of God, to be more essential to God, & less subject to the free determinations of his good will and pleasure, than are the egresses of his Mercy; nor do I see any necessity for asserting this against the Socinians, seing our ground, walking upon a decree, is proof against all their Assaults; far less see I any necessity of founding our whole debate with the Socinians, upon that ground; yea I cannot but judge it the result of great imprudence so to do, seing the Socinians may reply, that the sole ground of that Opposition to them is not only questioned, but plainly denyed, by such as we account Orthodox & learned; and may hence gather, that we have no other solide ground, whereupon to debate with them, but such as the learned of our owne side overthrow. The depths of God's Counsel are beyond our fathoming; and it is hard for us to say, hithertil the omnipotent can come, but not one ince further. I dar not be wise above what is written; and I would gladly see one passage of Scripture, declareing this to have been in itself utterly impossible, & inconsistent with God. But whatever may be said of this, what Scripture tels us, that Christ was sen to die, that he might obtain this Power unto God? And further, what was this power? Was it a meer Power & Liberty, that should never have any Effect? If it was to have an Effect, what was that? Was it only to make a new Transaction with man, in order to his salvation? If that was all, notwithstanding of all this Power & Ability, not one man might have been saved. Was it certanely to save some? Then, the Redemption cannot be called Universal, nor yet meerly Possible. Nay, if by the death of Christ a Right & Power only was obtained to God, God was at full liberty to have exerced that Right & Power, or not, as he pleased; and so notwithstanding thereof man might have remained in the same Condition, whereinto he was, and never so much as have had one offer of life, upon any termes whatever; or only upon the old termes of the Covenant of works; and what then should the advantage of this have been? The whole Scripture, speaking of the death of Christ, mentioneth far other Ends, respecting man.
If we (3.) Consider how the Scripture mentioneth, a number given of the Father to Christ, to be Redeemed & Saved, we shall see, that there is neither an Universal, nor yet a meer Possible Redemption: for this gift is utterly repugnant to, & destructive of both: for if, conforme to the Covenant betwixt the Father and the Son, there were some given to Christ to save & redeem, these he must actually save & redeem; and for these only, was Christ ordained & designed of the Father to be a Redeemer; and upon the account of these only, did he undertake the work, & lay down the ransome-money: for it is not rational to suppose, that, the designe of Father & Son being to save actually these gifted ones, Christ would shed his blood for others, who were not given to him, & who should receive no salvation by his blood; for cui bono? what could be the designe of Father & Son in this? The matter goeth not so in humane transactions, where the price is considerable. Now, that the Scripture mentioneth some given to Christ, & that in distinction from others, is clear Joh. 17:2.—that he should give eternal life to as many, as thou hast given him. So vers. 12. Those that thou gavest me, I have keept, and none of them are lost, &c. So Joh. 6:37. All that the Father hath given me, shall come unto me, & vers. 40. And this is the Fathers will, that hath sent me, that of all which he hath given me, I should lose nothing Joh. 17:9· I pray for them, I pray not for the world, but for them, which thou hast given me; for they are thine. 10. And all thine are mine & mine are thine, and I am glorified in them. 11.—Father, keep through thine own name those whom thou hast given me. 24. Father I will, that they also whom thou hast given me, be with me where I am, &c. Whence we see, that Christ had no charge of the rest; was under no tye to save them, nor would be so much as pray for them: but as for the given ones, Joh. 10. called his sheep, for these he laid downe his life, & prayed; and for these was he to give an account: nay, which is more, these had a special Interest in God's heart & affection & were thereupon given to Christ. They were the Father's, & given of the Father to the Son; and so fully discriminated from all the rest; and both Father & Son stand engadged to carry these thorow unto salvation: all which considered, it is most plaine, that the Redemption was Particular & Actual, conforme to the Undertaking, & Transaction.
Nay (4.) If we will consider the fountaine love, from whence the sending of Christ came, we will see how unreasonable it is to imagine an Universal meer Possible Redemption, as the proper end & effect, of Christ's death & merites. It is said Joh. 3:16. A place, which our Universalists look upon, as most favourable for them) that God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that all beleevers in him, might have eternal life. This love is held forth as unparallelable, a love greater than which cannot be conceived, & a love demonstrated by the greatest effect imaginable, sending & giving his only begotten, to give his life a ransome, & to die for sinners; and it must be contrary to all reason, to imagine, that all this was to procure a Redemption, by which it was possible, that not one man should be Actually Redeemed. Christ himself faith, Joh. 15:13. greater love hath no man, than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends. See also Rom. 5:8. And shall we think, that the effect of all this Non such Love, both of the Father, & of the Son, was only a Possible Salvation, and Redemption? and that all this love should be outed; and possibly not one man saved? Either the Lord knew, that some would get good by this fruite of wonderful love, or not? If not, then he was not omniscient: and then the Father gave his Son, & the Son came, & both were the effect of the greatest love imaginable, & yet neither of them knew, that any one soul should be saved for all that. If he knew, then he knew that they would get good by it, either by themselves alone, without his Grace, or not. If the first, why would he send his Son to die, & why would Christ come to die for such, as they saw would never have a will to be saved by his death? If the last be said, then, seing the greatest expression of love was to send his Son, & in the Son to come & die, how can we think, that that was for all, when the grace to improve that death, & profite by it, was not designed for all? Sayeth not Paul Rom. 8:32. He that spared not his owne Son, but delivered him up for us all, how shall he not with him also freely give us all things? Importing that that was Impossible. Shall we imagine that that is the greatest love, which is common to all, & is not able to effectuate the salvation of those upon whom it is set? and how can this be, that the greatest effect of this greatest love shall be common to all, & smaller effects not common also? See also 1. Joh. 4:9, 10, 11. where this speciall love, by which Christ was sent, is made peculiar unto beleevers; for John is speaking of none else: So is this love peculiarly terminated on Christ's Wife & Church Ephes. 5:26, 26. & hath gracious & saving effects Gal 2:20; Tit. 3:4, 5, 6, 7; Ephes. 2:4, 5, 6; Rom. 8:36, 37; 2. Thes. 2:16, 17; Revel. 1:5, 6. Beside, that this love is mentioned as an Old, Everlasting, & Unchangable Love, Jer. 31:3; Ephes. 1:3, 4; Rom. 9:11; Joh. 13:1; Zeph. 3:17. And is all this nothing but a General Common thing, that cannot save one soul, if Lord Freewill do not consent, of his own accord?
Moreover (5.) if we consider the ends assigned to the Death of Christ, mentioned in Scripture, we shall see that it was some other thing, than a meer Possible Delivery & Redemption, common to all mankinde. Mat. 8:11. He came to save that which was lost; and not to make their salvation meerly possible; for if that were all, Christs argument should have had no strength: So 1. Tim. 1:15.—Jesus Christ came into the world to save sinners: if it were a meer possibility, that might never take effect, how should this faithful saying be worthy of all acception; So Luk. 19:10 where the matter is exemplified in Zaccheus Mat. 1:21. the reason of the name Jesus, given to the Redeemer is, because he shall save his people from their sinnes, that is, Actually & Really, and not Potentially or Possibly only: and this cannot be meaned of all; for he saveth not the Reprobat from their sins; at least, not from the sin of unbeleef, by the confession of Adversaries; But here, no sin is excepted, and therefore is his death restricted to his people, whom he saveth from all their sinnes. Heb. 2:14, 15. there is another end of his death mentioned, viz. that he might destroy him that had the power of death, that is the devil, and deliver them, who through fear of death, were all their life time subject to bondage. This was no meer Possible Deliverance, but Actual & Effectual; and it was not common to all; for it is restricted to his Brethren vers. 11, 12, 17. and to sones 13. & to the children which God gave him vers. 13, 14. & to the Seed of Abraham vers 16. and againe vers. 17. wherefore in all things it behoved him to be make like unto his brethren, that he might be a Merciful & Faithfull High Priest in things pertaining to God, to make reconciliation for the people. Behoved Christ to be a Merciful & Faithful High Priest in things pertaining to God, only to make a Possible Reconciliation, whereby it might be, that not one person should be reconciled? & are the Reprobate his brethen? Ephes. 5:25, 26. To what end did Christ give himself for his Church? (And all the world of mankinde belong not to his Church.) It was, that he might sanctifie & cleanse it with the washing of water, by the word, that he might present it to himself a glorious Church, not having spot or wrinkle, or any such thing, but that it should be holy and without blemish, Is this a meer Possibility? Then might Christ have died, & have no Church to present to himself faire & spotless; his Church might have remained full of spots & wrinkles, unholy & full of blemishes, yea should have been no Church. Tit. 2:14. He gave himself for us, that he might redeem ut from all iniquity, and purifie unto himself a peculiar people zealous of good works. Do all the world belong to his peculiar people? doth Christ redeem all the world from all iniquity? Is all the world purified & made zealous of good works? Or is all this meer may be, which may not be? 2. Corinth. 5. vers. 21. He hath made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin, that we might be made the Righteousness of God in him. Was Christ made sin, or a sacrifice for sin, that all the world might possibly be made the Righteousness of God in him? that is, that possibly not one person might be made the Righteousness of God in him? who can dream thus, that God's intentions & designes should be so loose & frustrable, & that God should be so uncertain in his purposes? Gal. 1:4. why did the Lord Jesus give himself for our sinnes? It was, that he might deliver in from this present evil world, according to the will of God and our Father. This is no meer Possible Deliverance; and it is such as was designed not for all the world, but for the us, there mentioned. So Chap. 4:4, 5.—God sent forth his son, made of a woman, made under the Law, to redeem them that were under the Law, that we might receive the adoption of sones. This Real Benefite is manifestly here restricked. Joh. 17:19. for their sakes I sanctify my self, that they also may be sanctified through the truth, Christ sanctified himself, to be an oblation, not to obtaine a meer may be; but that they, for whose sakes he did sanctifie himself that is, they that were given to him vers. 6:9. and were his owne vers. 10. & were in due time to beleeve in him vers. 20.) might Really & Actually be Sanctified through him. Heb. 13:12. wherefore did Jesus suffer without the gate? it was, that he might sanctifie the people with his own bloud; sure, this is more, than a may be. Rom. 3:25, 26. Why did God set forth Christ to be a propitiation? It was to declare his Righteousness, for the remission of sinnes that are past, that he might be just, and the justifier of him, that beleeveth in Jesus: a Certaine Real thing. Many moe passages might be added to this purpose, but these may suffice, to discover the absurd falshood of this doctrine.
Adde (6.) such passages, as mention the Actual Accomplishment & Effect of Christ's death, where it will yet more appear, that this was no meere may be, or Possible thing, but that which was to have a certaine Being & Reality as to the persons, for whom it was designed; Such as Heb. 1:3.—when he had by himself purged our sinnes. Can their sinnes be said to be purged, who pine away in hell for ever, because of their sinnes? could this be true, if no man had been saved? and yet, if it had been a mere possible & may be Redemption, it might have come to passe, that not one person should have been actually saved. So Heb. 9:12.—by his owne blood he entered in once into the holy place, having obtained eternal redemption. Is a meer possible Redemption to be called an eternal Redemption? and was that all that Christ obtained? Then Christ's blood was more ineffectual in the truth, than the type was, in its typicalness; for the blood of buls & goats, and the ashes of an hiefer sprinkling the unclean, did not obtaine a possible and may-be-sanctification, and purifying of the flesh; but did actually & really sanctify to the purifying of the flesh vers. 13. Againe vers. 14. (which also confirmeth what is now said) how much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God, purge your conscience from dead works, to serve the living God. So that all such, for whom he offered himself, and shed his blood, and none else, have their consciences purged from dead works, to serve the living God: and who dar say, that this is common to all, or is a meer may be, which the Apostle both restricteth & asserteth, as a most certaine real thing; Againe vers. 26.—but now once in the end of the world, hath he appeared, to put away sin, by the sacrifice of himself. So that he did Actually & Really, and not Possibly & Potentially only, put away sin; the sin viz. of those, for whom he was a sacrifice, even of them, that look for him, and to whom he shall appear the second time, without sin unto salvation vers. 28. and sure, no man in his wits will say, that this is the whole world. Gal. 3:13. Christ hath redeemed us from the Curse of the Law, being made a curse for us. 14. That the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ, that we might receive the promise of the Spirit, through faith. Here are three Ends & Effects of Christ's Redemption mentioned, which no Man will say, are common to all viz. Redemption from the Curse of the Law; and this was Really, & not potentially only done, by Christ's being made a curse for us; the Communication of the blessing of Abraham, and the Promise of the Spirit, which are ensured to such as are Redeemed from the Curse of the Law, and to none else. So Ephes. 2:13, 14, 15, 16. But now in Christ Jesus, ye, who sometimes were afar off, are made nigh by the blood of Christ; for he is our peace, who hath made both one, and hath broken down the middle wall of partition between us; having abolished in his flesh the enmity, the Law of commandements in ordinances; for to make to himself of a twain one new man, so making peace; and that he might reconcile both unto God, in one body, by the crosse, having slaine the enmity thereby. To which adde the parallel place Col. 1:21, 22; & 2:14, 15. was all this delivery from Wrath, Enmity, Law of commandements & whatever was against us, but a meer Potential thing, and a may be, common to all, in whose power it was to cause it take effect, or not, as they pleased? Esai. 53:5. He was wounded for our transgressions, be was bruised for our iniquities, the chastisement of our peace was upon him, and with his stripes we are healed with 1. Cor. 15:3.—Christ died for our sinnes & 1. Pet. 2:24. who his owne self bear our sinnes in his own body, on the tree—by whose stripes we are healed: How can we then imagine, that all this was a meer may be, seing he was so bruised for our iniquities, so died for our sins, so bear our sinnes, in his own body; as that thereby all, in whose room he stood, are healed by his stripes? The Apostle doth moreover fully clear this matter, Rom. 5:6.—Christ died for the ungodly: was this for all? Or was it to have an uncertaine End & effect? No, vers. 9. much more then being now justified by his blood, we shall be saved from wrath through him. The ungodly and the sinners, for whom he died, are such as become justified by his blood, & shall at length be fully saved from wrath. And againe vers. 10. for if when we were enemies, we were reconciled to God, by the death of his son; much more being reconciled, we shall be saved by his life: Upon his death followeth Reconciliation with God, & then Salvation; and his death is for no more than his life is for. By him also they receive an atonement vers. 11. As the consequences & effects of Adam's sin did Certainly, and not by a may be, redownd to all, that he represented & engadged for; so the fruites & effects of Christ's death do as certainly come unto such, as are his, as the Apostle cleareth, in the following verses, laying the advantage on the side of Christ & his; vers. 15.—much more the Grace of God, and the gift by grace, by one man Jesus Christ, hath abounded unto many, vers. 16.—but the free gift is of many offences, unto justification, vers. 17.—much more they, which receive abundance of grace and of the Gift of Righteousness, shall reigne in life, by one Jesus Christ, vers. 18.—even so by the Righteousness of one, the free gift came upon all men to justification of life, vers. 19.—so by the obedience of one shall many be made Righteous, vers. 21.—so might grace reigne, through Righteousness unto eternal life, by Jesus Christ, our Lord. Is all this a Common thing, and a meer may be, or Possibility? Joh. 10:11. he giveth his life for his sheep & vers. 15. But may they for all that perish? No, in no wife vers. 28. and I give unto them eternal life, and they shall never perish. He came that they might have life, and might have it more abundantly, vers. 10. To the same purpose he saith Joh. 6:33. that he giveth life unto the world, not such a life, sure, as may never quicken any. Upon Christ's death doth the Apostle inferre Rom. 8:32. that the Elect shall have all things, & vers. 33, 34, 35. that they are free from all Accusations, or any Hazard therefrom, being justified, and having Christs Death, Resurrection, and Intercession to secure them at all hands; & thereupon they have assurance, that nothing shall separate them from the love of God. Act. 20:28. Christ hath purchased a Church with his own blood. The whole world is not this Church; nor is this purchase an uncertane may be; And all this Real & Certaine Effect of Christ's death, was foretold by Daniel Chap. 9:24.—to finish the transgresion, and to make an end of sins, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting Righteousness, &c. And who can imagine, that this is Universal, or Uncertane?
If we will (7.) Consider some other Ends of the death of Christ, which the Scripture pointeth forth, which are not to be found among Heathens, or any except the few Chosen ones, Ordained to life, we shall see, how unreasonable the Adversaries are. Gal. 4:5. Christ died to redeem them that were under the Law, that we might receive the adoption of sones. Was this end, & fruit left at an Uncertanty? Shall we thinks, that Christ might have died, & not one man receive this Adoption? Was this Adoption purchased upon an uncertain Condition? Or was this purchased equally for all? Then such as received it, might have thanked their owne well natured Free will, upon that account. But let us consider some other fruits. Gal. 1:4. who gave himself for our sins, that he might deliver us from this present evil world. So 1. Pet. 2:24. He bear our sins, in his own body, on the tree: but for what end: That we being dead to sin, should live unto Righteousness: & Chap. 3:18. Christ suffered for sins, the just for the unjust: To what end and purpose? To bring us to God. Heb. 10:10. by the which will we are sanctified. How came this to passe? Through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ, once for all, So he suffered without the gate, that he might sanctify the people Chap. 13:12; Revel. 1:5, 6.—he loved us, and washed us from our sins in his owne blood. But was this all? No, it is added, And hath made us Kings & Priests unto God, and his Father. So Ch. 5:9, 10.—thou was slain, and hast redeemed us to God, by thy blood; and what more? And hast made us unto our God, Kings & Priests, &c. So 2. Cor. 5:15. He died for all: But for what end and purpose? That they which live, should not henceforth live unto themselves, but unto him, which died for them, and rose againe. See Col. 1:22. These & the like passages do clearly pointe forth a special end of Christ's Death, which was designed both by the Father, that sent him, & by himself: and shall we suppose, that this great & chiefe designe was made to hang upon the lubrick & uncertain will of man? Shall Christ be beholden to mans good will for the purchase he made, at so dear a rate? If not, why are not all these ends attained, in all, for whom he died? Did Christ fail in laying down the Ransome? Or doth not the Father keep condition? Who can say either of these? Then surely, there can be no reason to say, that Christ made an uncertain bargain, & purchased only a Possibility of these fruites, which he knew not if ever he should attaine, in any one; Nor to say, that he died for all.
Let us further (8.) take notice: That for whom Christ died, he died to take away their sins; And that so, as they may be fully Pardoned, & never brought on reckoning againe: that is, that they be Remitted & Pardoned; and that the poor sinner may not suffer therefore. This sure must be the import of that prayer, forgive us our trespasses. If then Christ by his death hath taken away sin, and purged it away, making satisfaction to justice therefore, how can we think, that justice can punish the sinner in hell fire, for these same sinnes? But let us see, what the Scripture faith, 1. Joh. 3:5.—he was manifested to take away our sins. Ephes 1:7. we have redemption in his blood: what Redemption? forgiveness of sins, according to the riches of his grace. So likewise Col. 1:14. Now when sinnes are thus taken away, they are blotted out, & not remembered Esai. 43:25; Jer. 31:34; Heb. 8:12. Yea they are blotted out as a cloud, and as a thick cloud Esai 44:22. So they are said to be subdued, & casten into the depths of the sea. Mica. 7:19. Shall we now say, that Christ hath died, to purchase this Redemption, the Forgiveness & blotting out, as a thick cloud, and casting into the depths of the sea, of sin; and yet multitudes of those, for whom this was purchased, and that by the blood of God, should never obtaine this benefite, but have all their sins charged upon their own score? This so pincheth the Adversaries, that the best evasion they can fall upon, is to say, that none shall have Original sin charged upon them: But the Scripture no where restricteth this Remission to that sin only. Others therefore say, That no sin now shall be be charged upon any, but the sin of Unbeleef. Then Judas doth not suffer to day, for betraying his master: was it for this sin only, that the Old World was drowned; or that the Cities of Sodom are suffering the vengeance of eternal fite? Jude seemeth to say some other thing vers. 7. so are there other sins there reckoned up vers. 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. to which is reserved the blakness of darkness for ever, vers. 13. But some say, that these are all but pardoned upon condition. Then the Redemption is neither Actual & Real, nor Compleat, but a poor may be, and a may not be: and how can such sins be said to be forgiven or blotted out, and casten behinde God's back, and into the depths of the sea? Did Christ know, whether or not this condition would be performed? If not, then He is not the omniscient God. If he knew, that it would not be performed by the greatest part, how can we imagine, that he would notwithstanding lay downe his life to purchase a Remission for them? And how can we think, that He should purchase a Pardon to all, and let the event hang upon the pendulous tottering will of a sinfull creature? But as to that Condition, we shall.
Propose (9.) this consideration. The not performance of that Condition was no doubt a sin, and if Christ died for all the sinnes of the world, he died for that too: And if he died for that too, that is taken out of the way, or there must be another Condition imagined, upon performance of which, that is to be taken our of the way; and the non performance of this Condition being also a sin, our proposition will recurre upon this, and so in infinitum: but if this sin be taken out of the way, it cannot prejudge them of the pardon of the rest: and thus all their sins being pardoned, they must needs be saved: and yet it is not so. But it is said, that Christ died not for the sin of Final Unbeleef; yet it seemeth, that it will be granted, that he died even for the sin of Unbeleefe of all the world, and for unbeleefe continued in, until the last houre of a mans life; but not for that last act; which yet is but the same Unbeleefe continued in an hour longer; and shall we think, that Christ bare the Unbeleefe of 20, 40, 60. or moe yeers, in his body, on the crosse, & not the same Unbeleefe for one houre or halfe houre, yea or quarter of an houre? Who seeth not, how little ground there is for such an imagination? But the thing I would have mainly here considered, is this. That for whose sinnes Christ hath died, he hath died for all their sins; and therefore, if he died for the sinnes of all the world, he died for the Final Unbeleefe of all the world: But this will not be granted; therefore neither can it be said, that he died for the sinnes of all men. Whose sinnes he took upon him to make satisfaction for, he left none for them to answere for; for he is a compleat Mediator, and is sole Mediator. If he died for all the rest of the sinnes of the Reprobat, and of the whole world, why not for that also? Sure, when the Scripture speaketh of Christs taking away of sin, and of the Redemption, that is, forgiveness of sins, which people enjoy through him, there is no sin excepted, He was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities Esa. 53:5. the Lord laid on him the iniquity of us all vers. 6. or made the iniquitie of us all to meet on him; there is no ground for any exception here: when he was stricken for transgression vers. 9. and his soul was made an offering for sin, vers. 10. is there any appearance of the exception of any one sin? when he bear their sin and their iniquities vers. 11, 12. what intimation is given of an exception of any? Yea, if this exception was to be made, which would null & destroy all, what consolation could the declaration of this Redemption, remission of sins, yeeld unto poor sinners? Col. 1:14; Ephes. 1:7. When the Lord made him to be sin for us, was it only in part? how then could we be made the Righteousness of God in Him 2. Cor. 5:21? was the Lord in Christ reconcileing the world unto himself, not imputing only part of their trespasses to them? but the imputing of one sin would mar the reconciliation for ever. Is not final unbeleef a dead work? Doubtlesse; yet the blood of Christ purgeth Consciences from dead works Heb. 9:14. Did the blood of buls & goats of sanctify, as to the purifying of the flesh, as to leave the most defileing spot of all untaken away? How could healing come by his stripes, if he bear but part of our sins, in his body on the tree, seing final unbeleef alone would mar all? for where that is, there is no coming to God imaginable. But moreover, the Scripture tels us, that the blood of Jesus Christ his Son cleanseth us from all sin 1. Joh. 1:7. and that if any man sin, there is an Advocat with the Father, who is a propitiation for sins, 1. Joh. 2: vers. 1, 2. and so must be for all sins, otherwayes there were little ground of comfort here: And it was foretold by Daniel Chap. 9:24. that he should make an end of sin, & finish the transgression, & so bring—in everlasting Righteousness. Doth this admit of exceptions, and of such an exception, as would unavoidably make all null? No certanely. But you will ask of me, if I think, that Christ did die for final unbeleefe? I Answ. Not: for I judge, it is the sin only of Reprobates, who hear the Gospel: and I judge that Christ did not die for any sin of Reprobats: But this I hold, and have cleared, That for whose sinnes soever Christ hath died, he hath died for all their sins: And because he hath not died for Final Unbeleef, therefore he hath not died for any sin of such, as shall be guilty of this: and as for his owne, he died to prevent their falling into, and to keep them from this sin; for he died to bring them unto God, that they might have the Adoption of sons, that they might be sanctified, and live unto Righteousness, be made Righteous, yea the Righteousness of God; as is clear 1. Pet. 2:24; Heb. 10:10; 2. Cor. 5:21; 1. Pet. 3:18; Rom. 5:19. what then will they say to this? Final unbeleef is certainly a sin; and Christ either died for it, or not: if he died for it, than it can be laid to no mans charge; or Christ's death is of no value. If he died not for it, he died not for all the sinnes of all men; but at most, for some sinnes of all men; and if that was all, no man could thereby be saved, for one sin is enough to procure damnation.
Moreover (10.) we finde the Persons, for whom this price of blood was laid down, designed more particularly, and the Object of this Redemption restricted; and so it could not be for all & every one. It is said to be for Many Esai 53:11; Matth. 20:28; & 26:28; Mark 10:45; Heb. 9:28. and what these many are, is abundantly declared in other Scriptures, where they are called Christ's Sheep Joh. 10:15. Christ's People Mat. 1:21. His People, whom according to the predictions of the Prophets, which have been, since the world began, he should save from their enemies, and from the hand of all, that hate them, to performe the mercy promised to the Fathers, and to remember his holy Covenant, the oath, which he swore to Father Abraham; that he would grant unto them, that being delivered out of the hand of their enemies, they might serve him without fear, in holiness & Righteousness, before him, all the dayes of their life Luk. 1:68, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75. His Church Ephes. 5:25; Act. 20:28. His Body Ephes. 5:22. The Children of God, that were scattered abroad Joh. 11:52. Sones, Sanctified, Brethren, the Children that God gave him, that Seed of Abraham Heb. 2:10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17. They are the Sheep, that shall infallibly beleeve, because sheep Joh. 10:26. and Whom Christ knoweth, and of whom he is known vers. 14. and such as shall heare his voice vers. 16. & follow him vers. 27. to whom he will give eternal life, so that they shall never perish, & who are given to him of his Father vers. 28, 29. & the Elect 2. Tim. 2:10. He is bread giving life unto the World, of them, that the Father hath given him, and shall come to him Joh. 6:33, 39. They are these, concerning whom the Fathers will was, as being given of him, that he should lose nothing, but raise it up againe, at the last day ver. 38, 39, 47. The Redeemed ones that are numbered by God 144000. & are the first fruites unto God, and the Lamb. Revel. 14:3, 4, 5. They are such as are the Lords, & whom the Lord knoweth for his 2. Tim. 2:19. & are enrolled in the Lambs book, Revel. 13:8; & 20:15. So are they designed to be these, for whom God is, and who shall have unquestionably all things; the Elect who shall be justified, who shall not be separated from the Love of Christ; are in all things more then Conquerours Rom. 8:31, 32, 33, 34, 37, 38, 39. These with whom the Covenant shall be confirmed Dan. 9:27. The redeemed out of every Kinred, & Tongue, & People, & Nation; and made Kings & Priests Revel. 5:9, 10.
Further (11.) if Christ died for the sinnes of all persons, how cometh it that they are not all actually pardoned? It cannot be said, that Christ's death was not a satisfactory price, nor that the Father did not accept of it: If then he shed his blood for the remission of sins, Mat. 26:28. are not all these sins pardoned virtually & fundamentally? or shall they not all actually be pardoned in due time? If it be said, they shall be pardoned upon Condition of their faith. But if the sinnes of all be equally payed for, and equally in a virtual manner discharged, in Christ's being actually discharged from that debt, in the day of his Resurrection; and the actual discharge depending upon the uncertain Condition of mans Will; man, who willingly performeth the Condition, shall praise himself for the actual pardon, and none else; for Christ did no more for him, as to the Actual Pardon, than for others, who never shall be blessed with actual forgiveness: and yet forgiveness is held forth, as a special act of free grace; forgiveness of sinnes is according to the riches of his grace Ephes. 1:7. Moreover as to that Condition, whether did Christ purchase it, or not? If he did not purchase it, than man is not beholden to Christ, for the Condition; be it faith, or what ye will, it is no purchased mercy, but man is beholden to his good Lord-Free Will, for it, and so he may sacrifice to his own net, and sing glory to himself, for making himself to differ, and for obtaining to himself Actual Remission of all his sinnes, and consequently blessedness Rom. 4:6, 7, 8. for had not his owne well disposed Lord-Free Will performed that Condition, all that Christ did, had never more advantaged him, than it did others that perish.
If it be said, that grace to performe the condition, though it be not purchased by the blood, of Christ, yet it is freely given by God, to whom he will. I Answer Not to insist here, on the proof of faith's being purchased by Christ; because we shall cleare it afterward, & there is nothing else assigned for the condition, I would enquire, whether Christ knew to whom this grace would be given; or not? if not, then we must deny him to be God: if he knew, why shall we suppose, that he would lay down his life equally for all, when he knew before hand, that many should never get grace to performe the condition, upon which his death should redound to their actual pardon & justification? what Ends, or what Advantages can we imagine of such an Universal Redemption?
(12.) If the Condition, upon which actual pardon & justification is granted, in the blood of Christ, be purchased by Christ; then either all shall certainly be Pardoned & Justified, or Christ hath not purchased an Equal, Common, & Possible Redemption, to all and every man: But the former is true, & it is not true that all shall certainly be pardoned & actually justified; for then all should be glorified. That the condition, to wit, Faith, & Repentance is purchased by Christ, who can deny, seing, he is expresly called the Author of Faith, Heb. 12:2. and a Prince exalted to give Repentance & forgiveness of sins Act. 5:31? So that as forgiveness of sins is founded upon his death, as the Meritorious cause; so must Repentance be; and Christ, as an exalted Prince & Saviour, hath this power to dispose of his owne purchased legacy, which he hath left, and ensured by his death, unto the heires of salvation. Upon his Death, & Satisfaction made in his death, hath he gote all power in heaven & earth, a power to quicken whom he will Matth. 28:18; Joh. 5:21, 22, 27; Phil. 2:9, 10. Hence we are said to be compleat in him Col. 2:10. & to be blessed with all spiritual blessings, in celestials (to which, no doubt, Faith & Repentance do belong) in him Ephes. 1:3. Is it not from hence, that the divine power hath given unto us all things, that pertaine unto life and godliness 2. Pet. 1:3? Nay Paul tels us expresly Phil. 1:29. that it is given to us, in the behalfe of Christ, to beleeve on him. And certainly there is a promise of Faith & Repentance; and all the promises are yea & amen in Him 2. Cor. 1:20. all the Blessings contained in the Covenant, are made sure by his death, who was the surety of this better Testament Heb. 7:22. & this Testament was to have force by his death Heb. 9:15, 16, 17, 18. & the New heart & heart of flesh, is promised in the Covenant, & comprehendeth Faith & Repentance, they being some of his Lawes, which he hath also promised to write in the heart Jer. 31:33; Heb. 8:10; Ezech. 11:19, 20; & 36:20, 27. We have moreover seen that Sanctification & Holiness, from which, Faith & Repentance cannot be separated, were purchased by Christ, & intended in his death: whence he is made of God unto us Sanctification 1. Cor. 1:30. If it be not purchased by Christ, how come we by it? is it a thing in our Power, and an act of our owne Free Will? Then, as I said before, we are beholden to ourselves, for Faith and all that follow upon it, & then farewell all Prayer for Faith & Repentance, & all Thanksgiving to God for it. This is pure Pelagianisme. If it be said, that it is the free gift of God Ephes. 2:8. and a Consequent of electing love. I Answere all the fruites of election, which are to be wrought in us, are procured by the blood of Christ, for all are conveyed to us in a Covenant, whereof Christ is the Mediator & Surety, and with Christ he giveth us all things Rom. 8:32. & we are blessed in Him with all spiritual blessings, according as he hath chosen us in him before the foundation of the world Ephes. 1:3, 4. So we are predestinate unto the adoption of children by Jesus Christ, Ephes. 1:5. and adoption is not had without Faith Joh. 1:12. can we have Actual Redemption in Christ's blood Ephes. 1:7; Col. 1:14. even forgiveness of sinnes, and not have also in his blood Faith, without which there in no actual redemption, or forgiveness of sinnes to be had? when Christ gave himself for us, that he might purifie unto himself a peculiar people zealous of good works Tit. 2:14. did he not purchase Faith, without which we cannot be such? when the Renewing of the holy Ghost is shed on us abundantly, through J. C. Tit. 3:5, 6. have we not Faith also through him? May we not pray for Faith; and can we pray for any thing, & not in Christ's name? See 2. Tim. 1:9; 1. Pet. 1:3; Rom. 8:32, 39; Luk. 22:32.
Againe (13.) All that Christ died for, must certanely be Saved, But all Men shall not be saved. That all, for whom Christ died, must certanely be saved, is hence apparent. (1.) That all, who have Saving Faith & Repentance, shall be saved, will not be denyed; & that Christ hath purchased Faith & Repentance to all, for whom he died, we have showne above. (2.) These who shall freely get all things from God, must get Salvation; for all things else signifie nothing without that; but all they, for whom Christ was delivered, shall get all things, Rom. 8:32. (3.) They whom nothing shall separate from the Love of Christ, and from the Love of God, which is in Christ Jesus, our Lord, must certainly be saved: But all they, for whom Christ hath died, will in due time have ground to say this. Rom. 8:34, 35, 39. (4.) All they, to whose charge nothing can be laid, shall be saved: But this will be true of all that Christ died for; for Christ's death is held forth as the ground of this, Rom. 8:33, 34. (5.) They, for whom Christ interceedeth, shall undoubtedly by saved: But Christ interceedeth for all, for whom he died, Rom. 8:34. (6.) All who are sanctified shall be saved: But all that Christ died for, shall in due time be sanctified; Sanctification being, as we shewed above, one principal intended end of Christ's death. (7.) All Christ's Elected sheep shall be saved: But such are they, for whom Christ died, as was showne. (8.) All that God & Christ love with the greatest love imaginable, shall certainly be saved: But such are they, for whom Christ died, Joh. 3:16; & 15:13; Act. 20:28; Eph. 5:25. (9.) All that become the Righteousness of God in Christ shall be saved. But that shall be true of all, for whom he died, or was made sin, or a sacrifice for sin 2. Cor. 5:21. (10.) All, that shall be blessed in having their sins pardoned, shall be saved, Rom. 4:6, 7, 8. But all for whom Christ died shall have this Redemption, Ephes. 1:7; Col. 1:14. (11.) All they, whom Christ knoweth & acnowledgeth, shall be saved, Mat. 7:23. But he knoweth all them for his sheep, Joh. 10:14, 17. for whom he died. (12.) All, for whom Christ rose againe, shall be saved, seing he rose for our justification, Rom. 4:25. But he rose againe for all those, for whom he died, Rom. 4:25. who was delivered for our offences, and was raised againe for our justification, Rom. 8:34. (13.) All who shall be planted together with Christ, in the likeness of his resurrection, shall be saved: But that is true of such as he died for, Rom. 6:5. (14.) All they in whom the old man shall be crucified, that the body of sin might be destroyed, that hence-forth they should not serve sin, shall be saved: But that is true of such as he died for, Rom. 6:6, 7, 8. knowing this, that our old man is crucified with him, that the body of sin might be destroyed, that henceforth we should not serve sin: for he that is dead is freed from sin. Now if we be dead with Christ, we beleeve, that we shall also live with him, &c. (15.) All they, who shall be made Kings & Priests unto God, shall be saved. But all the redeemed shall be such, Rev. 1:5, 6; & 5:10. See worthy Mr. Durham on the Revel. p. 303. (16.) If Christ must see of the travail of his soul, then these he died for must be saved: But the former is true, Esai. 53:11. (17.) All whom Christ shall Justifie shall be saved, But he shall justify all, whose iniquities he beareth, Esai. 53:11. Thus is this sufficiently proved.
It is also considerable (14.) That no where in Scripture, we finde it expresly said & affirmed, That Christ died for all men; Far less finde we it said, that Christ died for all and every man. Why then is all this trouble made? But they say, as much as all that is said by consequence. And this we deny: if they will rationally presse this matter, they should evince, that such expressions, as they make so much work about, can be no otherwise understood, than they suppose, in the places, where they stand: and this they shall never be able to do. Though it be said, that Christ gave his life a Ransome for all; yet no reason can evince, that that is necessarily to be understood of all & every man: so nor can they conclude any thing rationally from the word world. They may as well inferre from these words all, and the world, that Christ died for devils, beasts & sensless creatures, as that he died for all & every man; for they are comprehended under these terms, as well as Men: And if they will restrict these termes to men, because of other Scriptures; why may not we restrick them also to the Elect, because of the correspondence of other passages of Scripture? They cannot deny us the liberty, they take to themselves. If they say, that there is a vast difference betwixt Devils an Men, in reference to such favours. We deny it not: but shall adde, that in reference to spiritual favours, amongst which we cannot but reckon, with the good leave of our Adversaries, the death of Christ, being the fruit & expression of the greatest Love of God to Man, we finde also a great difference in Scripture. Some are Loved, some Hated Rom. 9:11, 12. Some whom he Knoweth, some whom he Knoweth not Joh. 10:14; & 13:18; Mat. 7:23; 2. Tim. 2:19. Some Chosen & Ordained to life, others not, but to Wrath Act. 13:48; Rom. 8:30; & 9:18. &c. Ephes. 1:4; 1. Thes. 5:9. Some Sheep, others Goats Mat. 25:32. Some on whom God hath Mercy, others whom he Hardeneth Rom. 9. Some his Church, others not Act. 20:28; Ephes. 5:25. Some of the World, others not Joh. 17:9, 10. Some his Brethren, others not Heb. 2:10, 12, 13. And as plainly read we, that Christ died for his People Mat. 1:21. his Sheep Joh. 10:11, 12, 14. his Church Act. 20:28; Ephes. 5:25. his Elect Rom. 8:32, 34. and his Children. Heb. 2:12, 13.
If we would consider aright. (15.) What Christ did undergoe & suffer, while he was made sin, or was making satisfaction for sin; we should hardly think it probable, that Christ Jesus, God-man, who was the brightness of the Fathers glory, and the express image of his person, Heb. 1:3. and thought it no robbery to be counted equal with God, Phil. 2:6. Should have undergone what he did undergoe, and that the Father should have laid all that upon him, which he did lay upon him, and that to purchase only a meer Possible Redemption from sin & wrath, whereby not one person should be saved or pardoned, if so it had seemed good to captaine Free will. Not to mention his condescending to be Born of a woman, & to be made under the Law, Gal. 4:4. nor his being in the forme of a servant, Phil. 2:7. nor his Poverty & mean Condition in the world, 2. Cor. 8:9. nor his Conflicting with the indignities of the world, Psal. 22:6; Heb. 12:2, 3. with the temptations of Satan Math. 4:1–12; Luk. 4:15. and his being under the infirmities, common to the nature of man, being in all things like us, except sin Heb. 2:17; & 4:15; Esai. 52:13, 14. Nay, nor his sufferings in his Body, Name, Honour at death, when he was betrayed by Judas Mat. 27:4. forsaken by his disciples Math. 26:56. Scorned & Reviled by the world Esai. 53:2, 3. Condemned as a malefactor by Pilat, & Tormented by his persecutors Mat. 27:26–50; Joh. 19:34. & Endured the Painful, Shameful & Cursed death of the crosse Phil. 2:8; Heb. 12:2. all which & the like being endured by Him, who was the Son of God, could be no mean suffering, nor undergone for an uncertain end, or for the procureing of a meer Possible & Uncertain good: But that which we would most take notice of here, is, his Soul sufferings, being persued by divine justice, when that Zach. 13:7. was accomplished, awake, O sword, against my shepheard, against the Man, that is my follow, saith the Lord of hostes, smite the shepheard and the sheep shall be scattered, Mat. 26:31. and the Lord did bruise him, and put him to griefe Esai. 55:5, 10. and he began to be sorrowful even unto death Mat. 26:37, 38. and was fore amazed and very heavy Mark. 14:34. and was put to offer up prayers and supplications, with strong cryes and teares to him, that was able to save him Heb. 5:7. when, notwithstanding that an angel appeared unto him from heaven, strengthening him, yet being in an agony, he prayed more earnestly, and his sweat was, as it were, great drops of blood falling down to the ground Luk. 22:43, 44. and at length was made to cry out, my God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me Psal. 22:1; Mat. 27:46; Mark. 15:34. This was no mean business, when the Rayes & Irradiations of Divine Love were drawn-in & withheld from him, who had such a sharp sense of the happiness in the enjoying of God's favour, because of the Personal union with the Godhead. But that which is most of all to be considered, is his being made a Curse Gal. 3:13. and so made to wrestle with the Justice and Wrath of a sin revenging God. This was the gall and the worm-wood, that made him cry Joh. 12:27. Now is my soul troubled, and what shall I say? Father save me from this hour. Shall we suppose, that all this was about an Uncertane Bargane? Shall we think, that he died the cursed death of the crosse, and bore the weight of God's wrath Luk. 22:41; Mat. 27:46. and so became a sacrifice to satisfie divine justice Heb. 9:14, 18. & all to purchase a meer Possibility; or a meer Possible Redemption? Shall we think, that the Second person of the Trinity should do & suffer all these things, for to redeem man, when possibly, if Freewill should be so ill natured, not one man should reap any advantage thereby? Me thinks, the asserting of this should be a great temptation to cause people turne Socinians, and deny all these soul sufferings of Christ, & his bearing the wrath of God, & making any satisfaction to justice.
Adde to this (16.) That the Scriptures speak of Christ's Death & Sufferings, as being not for himself, but for others; and that not only for the good & advantage of others (and doubtless the advantage of all this should be but little, if it were nothing else, but a meer Possible Redemption, which Free will might make actual, or not Actual, as it pleased) but in their Roome & Place: hence it is called the chastisement of our peace Esai. 53:5. and he is said to have borne our griefs, and carried our sorrowes vers. 4. He was wounded for our transgressions; and bruised for our iniquities vers. 5. The Lord laid on him the iniquity of us all vers. 6.—for the transgression of my people was he stricken vers. 8.—for he shall bear their iniquities vers. 11.—he bare the sin of many vers. 12. He bear our sins, in his body, on the tree 1. Pet. 2:24. the just suffered for the unjust 1. Pet. 3:18. Hence beleevers are said to be crucified with him Gal. 2:20.—to be baptized into his death Rom. 6:3. buried with him by baptisme into death vers. 4.—planted together in the likeness of his death vers. 5. dead with Christ vers. 8. He was cut off, but not for himself Dan. 9:26. See also Heb. 2:9; 1. Pet. 2:21. Shall we say, that this was meerly for our good, seing it was, in some respect for the good of the whole creation Rom. 8:20, 21, 22, 23; Act. 3:21. and not in our Place & Stead? Paul saith 2 Cor. 5:14. If one be dead then were all dead. And it is manifest, that he payed the Law-debt, having taken on him the seed of Abraham for this end Heb. 2:16. & being made a curse for us, he redeemed us from the curse of the Law Gal. 3:10. So that it was in our stead Rom. 5:6, 7, 8; Joh. 11:50; & 10:11, 15. And the Preposition ἂντι hath clearly this import Mat. 5:38; & 17:27; Esa. 41:4; Exod. 21:23, 24; 1. Chron. 14:1; 1. King. 3:7; 1. King. 1:17; & 11:43; Prov. 11:3; Job. 16:4; & 34:17; 1. Pet. 3:9; Rom. 12:17. See many other places cited by worthy Mr. Rutherfoord in his book of the Covenant pag. 254, 255. where both in the N. T. and in the LXX. version of the old ἂντι hath this import. And this truth is abundantly made out by our Orthodox Divines, writting against the Socinians; so that I need say no more of it; only I think, such as assert the Redemption purchased by Christ to have been a meer General Possible Redemption, do strengthen the hands of the Socinians; and joyn with them against the Orthodox: But to our purpose, Such as Christ did thus die for, & in their room & place, are accounted to have died in Him, & so freed: as in Ter. Pro illo te ducam. Ego pro te molam.
Moreover (17.) If we consider the furniture, which Christ as mediator had given to him of the Father, we shall see more of the unreasonableness of his opinion, which the Arminians embrace: Not to speak of what he had as God, the Fathers Fellow & Equal, let us but take notice of that communicated furniture, which he had as Mediator between God and man, 1. Tim. 2:5. and our Emmanuel, Esai. 7:14. We see he is called Wonderful, Counsellour, &c. Esai. 9:6, 7. He is that Candlestick, whence the golden pipes do empty the golden oile, Zech 4:12. He was full of grace & truth Joh. 1:14. Was this fulness for a meer Possible effect? Or had he it so, and for such an end, as none might possibly be the better thereof? No; and of his fulness have all we received grace for grace Joh. 1:16. He had not the Spirit by measure Joh. 3:34. It pleased the Father, that in him should all fulness dwell. Col. 1:9. In him are hid all the treasures of wisdome & knowledge Col. 2:3. and in him dwelleth all the fulness of the godhead bodily vers. 9. And wherefore is all this? Even that all his might be compleet in him vers. 10. Grace was poured into his lips Psal. 45:2. and he was anoynted with the oyle of gladness above his fellowes vers. 7. And Esai. 61:1; Luk. 4:18. &c. The Spirit of the Lord God was upon him, because the Lord had anoynted him. And for what end? To preach glade tideings unto the meek, to binde up the broken hearted, to proclame liberty to the captives, and the opening of the prison to them that are bound. See further vers. 2, 3. Sure, this was no uncertain end, nor left to the discretion of Free will. So Esai. 11:2. And the Spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him, the Spirit of wisdom and understanding, &c. Shall all this be, and further shall Righteousness be the girdle of his loines, and faithfulness the girdle of his reines vers. 5. And may it notwithstanding so come to passe, that the Wolf shall not dwell with the Lamb, nor the Leopard lye down with the Kid, &c. nor the earth be full of the knowledge of the Lord, as the waters cover the sea? Vers. 6, 7, 8, 9. How absurd is it to imagine this? All this furniture saith, that it was no Uncertain General End, which he had before his eyes, in undertaking this work; and the Father in sending him, and granting to him this fulness.
Adde to this (18.) The Titles & Relations, which Christ took upon him: for they cannot be meer insignificant and empty Names. He is called a Redeemer Esa. 41:14; & 54:5; & 49:26; & 60:16; & 43:14; & 44:6, 24; & 48:17; & 49:7; & 47:4; & 59:20; Rom. 11:26. And shall we imagine, that He shall be a Redeemer & Deliverer, and yet no man Redeemed or delivered? No: He hath a redeemed company, whom he owneth as such Esa. 35:9; & 43:1, 23; & 44:22; & 48:20; Jer. 31:11; Esai. 51:11; & 52:3; & 63:4; Zach. 10:8; Luk. 1:68; & 24:21; 1. Pet. 1:18; Revel. 5:9; & 14:3. He is called a Saviour Esai. 43:3, 11; & 45:15, 21; & 63:8; Luk. 1:47; & 2:11; Joh. 4:42; Act. 5:31; & 13:23; 2. Tim. 1:10; Tit. 1:4; Ephes. 5:23; Tit. 2:13; & 3:6; 2. Pet. 1:1, 11; & 2:20; & 3:2, 18; 1. Joh. 4:14. Shall we think, that he was given & sent for a Saviour, and took upon him that title & relation, and notwithstanding no man might be saved? No, there are also some designed, the Saved 2. Cor. 2:15; Act. 2:4; 1. Cor. 1:18. He is called a King Revel. 15:3; & 17:14; & 19:6; 1. Tim. 6:15; Joh. 12:15; Luk. 19:38; & 23:2; Zach. 9:9; Mat. 21:5. Now is he an actual King, and shall have none but potential Subjects? Shall he be a King without a Kingdom? See Joh. 18:36; Col. 1:13; 1. Cor. 15:24. He is called an Husband 2. Cor. 11:2; Jer. 31:32. And therefore he must have a Wife & a Bride Joh. 3:29; Revel. 18:23; & 21:9; & 22:17. He is called an Head Ephes. 5:23; 1. Cor. 11:3; Ephes. 4:15; & 1:22; Col. 1:18. And so must have a body Ephes. 1:23; Rom. 12:5; Ephes. 4:4; Col. 3:15; & 1:24; & 2:19; Ephes. 4:16; & 5:23; & 3:6. He is called the Vine stock, & shall he have no Branches? Joh. 15:1, 2. &c. These things might be further enlairged & pressed; but we shall haste forward.
(19.) Our Adversaries say, That Christ by his Death & passion did Absolutely, even according to the Intention of God, purchase Remission of sins & Reconciliation with God, and that for all & every man: Others say conditionally: But withall as to the application of this purchase: it is made to depend upon faith: and so they distinguish betwixt Impetration & Application. And though it is true, the purchase made is one thing, and the actual enjoyment of the thing purchased is another thing: Yet we may not say, with our Adversaries, that the Impetration is for moe, than shall have the Application; But we assert, that both Impetration & Application, in respect of the designe of the Father, which is absolute & certain, and the Intention of Christ the Mediator, which is fixed & peremptory, are for the same individual persons; so that for whom soever God sent Christ, & Christ came to purchase any good, unto these same shall it actually, in due time, & in the Method & manner Condescended upon & prescribed, be given; & upon them, & none else, shall it actually be bestowed: for (1.) No other thing, beside this Application, can be supposed to have been the end of the Impetration; And sure, Christ was herein a Rational Agent: Nay, it was the Intention & designe of the Father, that the Application of these good things should be by the meanes of this Impetration, as is abundantly cleared above. (2.) We cannot suppose that either Christ, or his Father, should faile, or come short of their end designed; but by our Adversaries, the Impetration might have been obtained, and yet no Application made of the good things impetrated & obtained. (3.) If no Application was intended by the Father or by Christ, then it must be said, that both were uncertain, as to what the Event should have been, or at least Regardless & Unconcerned; either of which to affirme were blasphemy. (4.) The very word Impetrate, having the same force & import with, Purchase, Procure, Obtaine, Merite, and the like, doth say, that such, for whom this Impetration was made, have a right, upon the Impetration, to the thing Acquired & Purchased: And if they have a right thereto, that Possession should follow. (5.) Yea the word importeth, the actual conferring of the good, to be the very end of the Purchaseing & Impetrating; and so, in this case, the very Impetration is ground of Assurance of the Application, considering, who did impetrate, and at whose hands, and withall, what was the ground of the Fathers sending of Christ, and of Christs coming to impetrate, even inconceiveably wonderful & great Love. Nor doth the intervening of a condition, required before the actual collation of some of the good things purchased, hinder at all; for all these Blessings, some whereof are as a condition to others, are the one good thing Impetrated, and the very conditions are also Impetrated, as we declared above: and so this pointeth forth only the methode of the actual bestowing of these good things purchased. (6.) How absurd is it to say, a thing is Impetrated or Obtained, and yet may, or may not be Bestowed; may be Possessed, or not Possessed? Or to say, that such a good thing is Obtained by price or petitioning, and yet the same good thing, may never be Bestowed, or the Bestowing of it hangeth & dependeth upon an Uncertain Condition, which may never be performed? (7.) How unreasonable is it, that such should have right to the Merites, that have no right to the thing Merited? Doth not an interest in the Merites, procureing any thing, include an interest in the thing Merited? When a ransome is payed for captives, to the end they may be delivered, have not these Captives a right to the deliverance, upon the payment of that ransome? (8.) The Scriptures do so connect these two, that it argueth contempt thereof, to imagine such a separation: as Rom. 4:25. Yea the one is assigned as a certain Effect & Consequent flowing from the Other, as its Moral cause Esai. 53:11. By his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many; this Justification is the Application; & whence cometh it? For he shall bear their iniquities, there is the Impetration given as the ground hereof: So further vers. 5. he was wounded for our transgressions, &c. and what followeth upon this Impetration? And by his stripes are we healed. So Rom. 5: vers. 18. By the Righteousness of one the free gift came upon all men to justification. So that the Application reacheth an all, that is, all who have interest in the Righteousness, which is the thing Impetrated see also Heb. 10:10. (9.) If Christs Intercession be for the same persons, for whom he died, then the Application is to the same; for this Intercession of Christ is in order to the Application: But that Christs Intercession is for the same persons, for whom he died, we shall see hereafter. (10.) If all things be ensured to such, for whom Christ died, then certanely this Application cannot fail but the former is true Rom. 8:32. He that spared not his owne Son, but delivered him up for us all, how shall he not (mark this manner of expression which importeth the greated of absurdities to think otherwise) with him also freely give us all things? (11.) And in that same place vers. 33, 34. Christs death is given as the certain ground of Justification, & Salvation, so that such, as he died for, shall certanely, in due time, & after the methode prescribed, be Justified & Saved; otherwayes, there were no sure ground in the Apostles argueing; for if all the ground of this certanty, as to Application, were from their Faith, or fulfilling of the Condition, the Apostle would have mentioned this, as the maine ground, & not have led them to a ground common to others, who never should partake of the Application. (12.) This matter is abundantly confirmed from what we said above, concerning Christs purchasing of Faith, and dying for our sanctification, & to bring us to God, &c. so that more needeth not be added here.
(20.) For further confirmation of this, and because our Adversaries think to salve the fore mentioned separation of Impetration & Application, by telling us, that where good things are Absolutely purchased, then Application must follow; But not where good things are purchased only Conditionally, as in our case: we shall therefore shew, how this will not hold, nor advantage their cause: for (1.) If all be Redeemed Conditionally, that condition, whatever it be, must in equity be revealed to all. (2.) Either God & Christ knew, who would performe this condition, or not: If not, then they were not omniscient: If they did know; then sure, this death was more particularly & designedly intended for them, than for the rest: and upon what account, & to what end, should Christ lay down his life a Ransome for such, as he knew certainly should never be the better thereof? And why would the Father send him to die for such? (3.) This Condition is either in mans sole power, without the help of the Grace of God, to performe, or not: If it be in mans power, from what Scripture shall this Pelagianisme be confirmed? How shall then the new Covenant of Grace be distinguished in specie from the Covenant of Works, made with Adam? If this Condition be not in mans power, but the Grace of God must work it. Then either God will work it in all, or not: If not, why would God purchase good things to people upon a Condition, which they could not performe, & which he alone could work in them, & resolved not to worke in them? If he will worke it in all, then all shall certainly be saved. Againe, if this Condition be the free gift of God, then either God will give it Absolutely to all; and so all shall certainly be saved; or Absolutely to some, & then none but they shall be saved, and why should Christ die for the rest? Or Conditionally to all: And if so, the doubt will recurre concerning that Condition, which either must be Absolutely given, & so we are where we were, or Conditionally, and so still the doubt recurreth. (4.) This condition is either purchased by Christ, or it is not. If not, then we owe no thanks to Christ for it, nor for what is obtained upon that Condition, more then others who performe not the Condition, & so obtaine nothing: but to ourselves only, who make ourselves to differ; and so may we sing praises to ourselve, & put the crown upon our owne heads, and give no song of praise to the Redeemer, but what such as go to hell are bound to give, contrary to all Christian Religion: If Christ hath purchased this Condition, then it is done either Absolutly, of Conditionally: If Absolutely, than all shall Absolutely have it: if Conditionally, we enquire, what is the Condition? And whatever it be, we may move the same questions concerning it. (5.) By this meanes the act should creatits owne object; for Faith in the death of Christ is ordinarily given as the Condition, and this faith maketh the death of Christ valide, which otherwayes would not be. (6.) This maketh all the vertue of Christs death to depend upon mans act; so that if man will, all shall be saved; if not, no man shall be saved, notwithstanding that Christ died for them. (7.) This makes Christ but, at most, a half Mediator, doing one part of the work; and man, coming in to compleete it must be the other half mediator; and so, at least, must have the halfe of the Praise. (8.) where saith the Scripture, that if we beleeve, Christ died for us? or that Christ died for all, or for any, Conditionally? It is true, some of the effects of Christ's death are bestowed Conditionally, (taking the word conditionally not properly, as if the performance of that Condition, did in proper Law sense procure a right to these mercies; for through the merites of Christ's blood have we a right properly to all; but improperly as denoteing nothing but the Methode & way of God's bestowing the blessings purchased, first this, and then, upon the souls acting of that, another; as for example, first faith, then upon the souls acting of Faith, Justification, then Sanctification &c. and upon the souls acting of Sanctification, Glorification) but the death of Christ cannot therefore be called Conditional, more than the will or purpose of God can be called conditional, because some of the things willed, may depend upon other, as upon a condition. (9.) Then by performing the Condition, man should procure to himself a Legal Right, and Title not only to the death of Christ, but to Justification, Adoption, Sanctification, yea & to Glorification; yea and that a more near & effectual Title & Right, than what was had by Christ's death; for the Title had by Christ's death (if it can be called a Title) was far Remore & Common to such, as shall never have any profite by it; but the other is Certain, Particular, Proxime, & giveth possession, jus in re. (10.) Then Christ's blood, as shed upon the crosse, was but a Potential thing, having no power or vertue in it self to redeem any, it was but a poor Potential price: and all its vertue of actual purchasing & procureing is from mans performing the Condition; this, and this only, giveth it Power & Efficacy: and so Christ is beholden to man for giving vertue unto his Blood, and making it effectual, which before was a deadin-effectual thing. Then let any judge, who should have the greatest share of the Glory of Redemption, Man or Christ. (11.) was Christ's death Absolute in no respect; or was it, as to some things, I mean, belonging to Grace & Glory, Absolute? if in nothing, then Man must certanely have a great share of the glory: if it was Absolute as to any thing, what was that? and why was it more Absolute as to that, than as to other things? And why should it then be simply, & without limitation, said that Christ died for all Conditionally?
For Further confirmation of our 19. Argument, & confutation of our Adversaries position, we adde (21.) That Christ Jesus is heard of the Father in all that he asketh Psal. 2:8; Joh. 11:41, 42. and as an High Priest he entred into heaven Heb. 9:11, 12. now to appear in the presence of God for us vers. 24. to prepare a place Joh. 14:2. & to act the part of an Advocat, interceding with the Father, in the behalfe of all such, for whom he died 1. Joh. 2:1, 2. If then Christ, whom his Father heareth alwayes, intercedeth in the behalfe of all these, for whom he died, either he did not die for all, or all must certainly be saved. That Christ's Intercession, & Death are for the same persons, will be, and must be denyed by our Adversaries: But to us it is most manifest from these grounds. (1.) To Intercede & pray are as Essential & Necessary Acts of the Priestly office, as to offer sacrifice: and the Apostle Heb. 9. cleareth up, how Christ did in truth, what the High Priest among the Jewes did in the type; for as the High Priest alone went, once every year, into the second tabernacle, or holy of holies, not without blood, which he offered for himself, and the errours of the people vers. 7. So Christ, being come an High Priest of good things to come, by a greater and more perfect tabernacle, by his owne blood, he entered in once into the holy place, having obtained eternal Redemption vers. 12. Hence he is said to Live for ever to make Intercession for us. Heb. 7:25. and he is an Advocat with the Father 1. Joh. 2:1. Hence then it is manifest, that Christ must Intercede for such, as he did Offer up himself for, or he shall not be a Perfect & Compleet High Priest; or not faithfull to performe all the Offices of the High Priest: neither of which can be said. (2.) The ground of his Intercession, is held forth to be his Oblation: as the High Priest went into the holy of holies with the blood of the sacrifices, which he had offered; so Christ entered into the holy place, having first obtained by the sacrifice of himself an Eternal Redemption. Heb. 9:12. So he is an Advocate with the Father, being first a Propitiation for sinnes 1. Joh. 2:1, 2. (3.) Both his Death & Intercession make up one Compleet Medium, & are intended & designed, as one Medium, for the end designed, viz. the bringing of many sones unto glory, saving to the uttermost all that come to God through him &c. (4.) How unreasonable is it to think, that Christ would refuise to Pray for such, whom he loved so dearly, as to lay down his life for? yet he saith expresly, that he prayeth not for the world, but for others, distinguished from the world, Joh. 17:9. (5.) As His Death was for such as the Father had given him (as we saw above) so his Intercession & Prayer is restricted to such Joh. 17:9.—I pray not for the world; but for them which thou hast given me, for they are thine. (6.) Christ's end in coming into the world, was to save his people; Hence he gote that name Jesus; but he should not be able to save them, Perfecty, Compleetly, & to the Utermost, if he did not joyne his Intercession, with his Oblation; Yea upon this account he continueth ever a Priest, having an unchangable Priesthood, Heb. 7:24, 25. But this man, because he continueth ever, hath an unchangable Priesthood, wherefore he is able to save them to the uttermost, that come unto God by him, seing he ever liveth to make intercession for them. (7.) The Apostle so joyneth them together Rom. 8:34. that they must do manifest violence to the Apostles reasoning, who would pull them asunder, & separate the one from the other. It is (sais he) Christ that died, yea rather that is risen againe, who is even at the right hand of God, who also maketh intercession for us. (8.) Yea, they are so joyned together here, that his death alone considered could not yeeld that ground of triumph & boasting, nor security from Accusations: Yea rather, that is risen againe, &c. (9.) So that the separating & taking of these asunder, is greatly prejudicial to the consolation of his people; for though they should attaine to some apprehensions of Christ's dying for them, as an Advocate with the Father, upon new sinnes 1. Joh. 2:1, 2. Though Christ died, yet they might be condemned, for he must also Interceed; and if he do not Intercede for them, their Hopes, & Comforts are gone: And so there should be no force in that, who is he that condemneth, it is Christ that died? Rom. 8:34. And a poor soul might be hal saved, but not to the uttermust, contrare to Heb. 2:15. (10.) And that place Rom. 8:33. restricteth both equally unto the Elect: who shall lay any thing to the charge of God's elect? (11.) When Christ laid down his life a Ransome for sinners, he could not but know, that by that Ransome none should be actually saved, without his Intercession, it being accorded betwixt Father & Son, that the mediator should mediate both by Price & by Prayer: And he could not but know, for whom he purposed & intended to Interceed; how shall we then suppose, that he would lay down his life for those, for whom he was purposed not to Pray? Or that he would do the most for them, For whom he would not do the least? (12.) Christ's intercession is really a presenting unto God the Oblation made: Therefore sayes the Apostle Heb. 9:24. that Christ is entered into heaven it self, to appear in the presence of God for us: And so by appearing he Interceedeth: & his appearing is in his owne blood, whereby he obtained Eternal Redemption Heb. 9:12. & so his Intercession must be for all, for whom the Oblation was, & the eternal Redemption was obtained. (13.) Yea both these are so joyned together by Esaias Chap. 53:12. as that they are made one ground, & procureing cause of God's divideing him a portion with the great, & of Christs own divideing the spoile with the strong; Because he hath poured out his soul unto death, and he bare the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressours. (14.) This is further clear from the reasons, we gave to confirme that fast connexion betwixt Christ's Impetration & Application, in the foregoing paragraph, for the Actual Application of the benefite & fruit of his oblation is attributed to his Intercession. (15.) Nay, that whole Chapter Joh. 17. confirmeth this; for there Christ is both Offering himself, or sanctifying himself thereunto vers. 19. and Interceding, and these are so lincked together, both in themselves, & as to the persons for whom, that it must argue, at least, much incogitancy, to imagine a divulsion, & separation of these two acts of his Priesthood. (16.) If Christ Intercede not for the same persons, for whom he died, we ask for whom he Intercedeth? Is it for actuall beleevers? Then we ask a Scripture ground for this restriction? And then it is manifest hence, that Christ Intercedeth not for the working of faith in any: And yet Esaias tels us, that he maketh Intercession for transgressours. And we see Joh. 17:20. that he prayeth not only for those, who were already beleevers, but for such also, as were not yet beleevers. He told us Himself also, that he would pray the Father for the Spirit, Joh. 14: vers. 16. And among other things, this is one work of the Spirit, to cause a sinner beleeve, 2. Cor. 4:13; Ephes. 1:17, 18, 19.
The point we are upon will be further cleare, if we consider. (22.) That Christ's death was a Redemption, & we are said to be Redeemed thereby Gal. 4:5; & 3:13; Rom. 3:24; Ephes. 1:7; Col. 1:14; 1. Pet. 1:8; Revel. 5:9; Tit. 2:14. And therefore, all such, as he laid down this Redemption, or Redemption money for, must of necessity be redeemed & saved, & consequently he died not for all, seing all are not redeemed & saved. His Ransome, or Price of Redemption, which he laid down, viz. his blood, which he shed, is called λύτρον a ransome Mat. 20:28. & ἁντίλυτρον 1. Tim. 2:6. That all such, for whom this Redemption-money was payed, & this Ransome was given, must be saved, is cleare; for (1.) Other wayes it were no Redemption, a Ransome given for Captives doth say, that these Captives, in Law & Justice, ought to be set at liberty. (2.) This Redemption is the same with, (as to the effect,) or hath attending it, forgiveness of sins. Col. 1:14; Ephes. 1:7. & forgiveness of sins, is with justification, & hath blessedness attending it Rom. 4:6, 7, 8. (3.) Salvation necessarily followeth upon this Ransome & Redemption, as is clear 1. Tim. 2:4. compared with vers. 6. (4.) This Redemption is from a vaine Conversation 1. Pet. 1:18. & consequently is attended with Salvation. (5.) It is attended with justification, Rom. 3:24. being justified freely by his grace, through the redemption, that is in Jesus Christ. (6.) Hence it is called the Redemption of the transgressions Heb. 9:15. that is, either of Transgressours, by a metonimy, or of us from the evil of transgressions, & that upon a valuable compensation & satisfaction; for ἀπολύτρωσις is a Redemption from evil by the Intervening of a Price, a λύτρον, a Ransom, (7.) This was a Redemption from the Law, for God sent forth his son—made under the Law, to redeem them, who were under the Law Gal 4:4, 5. & so by this redemption, there is a liberation had from the Law, & its Curse & Penality. (8.) And it is a Redemption of such as were under the Law, for this end, that they might receive the adoption of sones Gal. 4:5. But this Adoption of sones is not common to all. (9.) All which receiveth confirmation from this, that the Father, who received this ransome, did himself send his Son to lay it down, & so it was his own Ransome; and therefore must have been payed, upon a certaine designe of actually Redeeming & delivering from Sin, Satan, Death & Hell, those, for whom it was laid downe. (10.) So is there an other end of this Redemption mentioned Gal. 3:13, 14. Christ hath redeemed us from the Curse of the Law—that the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ. (11.) Seing the Lord Jehovah might have refused to free the sinner, upon any Redemption or Satisfaction offered, & exacted all of the sinners themselves, that they lay under by the Law, it was a great condescendence in love of this great Lord, & a gracious act of Soveraignity, to accept of a mediation; & of Love & free grace to provide a Redeemer; we cannot but in reason think, that His good pleasure did regulare this matter, as to the Persons, who should be Redeemed, & as to the manner & method after which they should actually partake of the Redemption. And that therefore, the persons to be redeemed were condescended upon, and the persons condescended upon were certanely to be Redeemed; the Lord having intended, in the contrivance of this Redemption, the certaine Salvation & Redemption of those, who were condescended upon, & of none else, and the Intentions, Designes & Purposes of God are not vaine nor frustrable.
Further (23.) Christ's death had a real Merito in it, that is, a worth and value, to procure the good things, it was given for; so that thereby there was a Purchase made. Act. 20:28. And therefore, we cannot suppose, that all that was Procured & Purchased hereby, was a General, Uncertaine, & meerly Possible thing. If it had a value & worth in it, (as no question it had) to purchase & procure grace & glory, unto all, for whom it was given, and was accepted as a valuable price of the Father, why should not the thing, hereby purchased, be given & granted, in due time? To say, that all was suspended upon a condition, is to made all Uncertaine: or we must say, that Christ's death did procure that Condition also: and then all is right, for that is it, we say.
(24.) Christ's death is to be considered as the death of a Testator Heb. 9:15, 16, 17. And for this cause, he is the Mediator of the New Testament, that by meanes of death, for the redemption of transgressions, that were under the first Testament, they which are called, might receive the promise of eternal inheritance: for where a Testament is, there must also of necessity be the death of the Testatour: for a Testament is of force after men are dead, otherwise it is of no strength, at all, while the Testatour liveth. So he said himself of the cup, in the Sacrament, that it was the blood of the New Testament Mat. 26:28; Mark. 14:24. & that it was the cup of the New Testament in his blood Luk. 22:20. and Paul calleth it, the New Testament in his blood 1. Cor. 11:25. So that his Death & Bloodshed was the death of a Testatour, for the confirmation of the New Testament, and for ascertaneing of the Legatees, of the good things bequathed to them in legacy, by the Testament. Now a Testament commonly is a declaration of the Testatours free, Absolute & Voluntary Purpose of bestowing such & such benefites, to such & such friends; and so it is the Testatours letter will, whereby he willeth that this legacy be given to this person, & that to another. It is true, men may insert some Conditions, as to some legacies, because they are but men, & know not contingent future things, nor have they the wils & dispositions of such, they appoint legatees, in their own hand and power; But it is otherwayes with our Testatour: and therefore we cannot think, that He left the legacies in his Testament, at the uncertainty of conditions, to be performed by men; especially considering, how as he died to ratify the Testament, so he rose againe to administrate the same, as the sole executor thereof by his Spirit, & that what legacies he left to be bestowed, upon such & such conditions he left not the matter at an uncertainty; for the condition it self was bequeathed, as the necessary good of the Testament, without which all would have been to no purpose. It is unreasonable then to think, that Christ died to give force to his Testament; and yet it might come to passe, that he should have no heire, to enjoy the goods left in legacy. Nor is it reasonable to think, that all the world were equally his heires, seing the Inheritance, and Kingdom is for the little stock Luk. 12:32. and a peculiar select number 1. Pet. 1:4; Joh. 17:24; Col. 1:12. who are heires of the promises, of God, of salvation, of the Grace of God, of the Kingdom &c. Rom. 8:17; Gal. 3:29; & 4:7, 30; Ephes. 3:6; Heb. 1:14; & 6:1; & 11:7; Jam. 2:5; 1. Pet. 3:7. Therefore, all whom Christ hath appointed heires in his Testament, shall certainly enjoy the good things tested, in due time, for his Death gave force to his Testament, as being his Last & Unchangeable will, so that they cannot misse of the Inheritance, and be disappointed, especially considering, that Christ by his death laid down a valuable & rich price to purchase all these good things, which he left in legacy to his friends & heires.
Christ's death moreover (25.) is to be considered, as the death of a Sponsor & Cautioner, and this will further confirme our point: Hence he is called a Surety Heb. 7:22. and is said to die for the ungodly Rom. 5:6. to be made a curse for us Gal. 3:13. and to be made sin 2. Cor. 5:21. and other expressions of the like Kind have the same import: From whence it is evident, that Christ took the debt upon him, that was justly to be charged upon the account of sinners, that he became one person in Law, with sinners the principal debtor; that he payed & satisfied for all the debt, and that in their room and place: and that therefore all these, for whom he died, must certainly be delivered from the Debt, and from the Charge & Consequences thereof. These things are manifest of themselves, and need no further confirmation. Now seing all are not delivered from the debt of sin, nor from the punishment due because of sin, we cannot say, that Christ died, as a Cautioner, for all; for sure his death was a compleat payment of all the debt he undertook to pay, and to satisfie for. Nor can we say, that he died as a Cautioner for he knew not whom; far lesse, that he died as a Cautioner, and yet none might possibly receive advantage thereby. Nor yet can we say, that he died, as a Cautioner, and payed for some sinnes of all, and not for all their sinnes, for whom he died; seing he was a Compleet Cautioner. So then, as Christ died in their roome & stead, as their Cautioner, & Sponsor, for whom he died, wrong should be done to Him, if all these, for whom he was a Cautioner, should not at length actually be delivered out of prison, & freed from the accusation of the Law: They, for whom he died, being in him legally, when he died, and morally & virtually dying in him, and with him, must not, in justice, be made to pay their own debt, & satisfie the Law over againe: Christ's stricking hands (as the phrase is Prov. 22:26.) and so putting his name in the obligation, and accordingly making satisfaction, the Principal's name is blotted out, and he free in the time appointed: for he bare our griefs, and carryed our sorrowes &c. Esai. 53:4, 5. and by meanes of death, he delivered them, who through fear of death were all their life time subject to bondage Heb. 2:14, 15.
This matter will be further clear, if we consider (26.) How the death of Christ was a Satisfaction: and none can deny this, but Antichristian Socinians: Others willingly grant, that Christ did substitute himself, in the room of sinners, and was willing to undergo the punishment, threatned in the Law against sin, that the sinners, for whom he undertook satisfaction, might be freed: So he bare their sins Esai. 53:11; 1. Pet. 2:24. And he was made sin 2. Cor. 5:21. Hence he is called a Propitiation 1. Joh. 2:3; & 4:10; Rom. 3:25. Whereby we see, that Christ took upon him the whole Punishment, that was due to sin; and that God, whom sinners had offended, was well pleased with what he did and suffered, according to that undertaking, yea more pleased, than he was displeased with all the sinnes of those, for whom he suffered: for hereby His Authority & Justice was made to appear more glorious & excellent. How then can we think, that many of those, & it may be all, for whom he gave that satisfaction, may, notwithstanding, possibly be made to make satisfaction for themselves, as they may by our Adversaries way? Was not his satisfaction full & compleat? Why should any then, for whom he gave that satisfaction, be liable to Punishment? Is this consonant to justice? Did not the Lord Jehovah send Christ & fit him with a body for this end Psal. 40:6; Heb. 10:5. & laid upon Him the iniquities of us all Esai. 53:6. that He might make full satisfaction for them to justice, & suffer for them all that the Law could demand of them, or they were liable unto by the broken Law? Did not Christ do & suffer all, which he undertook to do, & suffer for this end? And did not the Father accept of what he did & suffered, as a full Compensation, & Satisfaction? And seing this cannot be denied, & it is manifest that this was done by Christ as a Cautioner Heb. 7:22. how can it be imagined, that the Principal debtor shall not thereupon have a fundamental right to freedom & pardon, & in due time, after the Gospel method, be actually Discharged, & delivered from the penalty of the Law, & Redeemed by the Satisfactory Price payed by the Cautioner, & accepted of the Creditour? Doth not the denying of this certain & infallible Effect, call in question the value & worth of Christ's satisfaction, and give ground to say, that Jehovah was not Satisfied with the price; or that Christ made no Satisfaction? Did not Christ make Reconciliation for the sinnes of his people? Heb. 2:17? Ἱλάσκεσθαι τὰς ἁμαρτίας, that is, ἱλάσκεσθαι Θεὸν περὶ τῶν ἁμαρπῶν.
Adde for a further confirmation of this. (27.) That Christ's death was a propitiating sacrifice. He gave himself for us, an Offering and a Sacrifice to God, for a sweet smelling savour Ephes. 5:2. He offered up himself once Heb. 7:27. He is a sacrifice for us, 1. Cor. 5:7. & the lamb of God, which beareth, or taketh away the sin of the world Joh. 1:29. He offered up himself without spot to God Heb. 9:14. & he was once offered to bear the sinnes of many Heb. 9:28.—we are sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all,—he offered one sacrifice for sin for ever Heb. 10:10, 12. Now as the sacrifices under the Law, which were a type of this, did not procure a General, Possible benefite, but did procure a Real favour, only to the People of God; for they sanctified to the purifying of the flesh Heb. 9:13. So certainly this Real & Perfect sacrifice must have a Peculiar & Real Effect & sprinkle consciences from dead works, to serve the living God: Heb. 9:14. And this is not a thing common to all, nor is it a meer Possible thing: They must then do a great indignity unto the Sacrifice of Christ, who speak of an Universal meerly Possible Redemption.
Adde to this. (28.) How upon this Sacrifice, which Christ offered up, in his death, we read of a Reconciliation made Ephes. 2:16. and that he might Reconcile both unto God, in one body, by the crosse, having slaine the enmity, by it, or in himself 2. Cor. 5:10. when we were enemies we were Reconciled to God, by the death of his Son. Col. 1:20. and having made peace, through the blood of his crosse, by him to Reconcile all things unto himself. Therefore is he called our Peace Ephes. 2:14. & he maketh Peace vers. 15. we have Peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ. Rom. 5:1. Now this Reconciliation being of parties, that are at variance, must be a Reconciliation of both to other, and so a mutual Reconciliation: and Christ effectuateth both: and both are purchased by his death: we cannot then imagine with Socinians, that all the Reconciliation, mentioned in Scripture, is of us to God; as if God's Anger & Wrath were not appeased & taken out of the way; nor with Arminians, that Christ obtained an Universal Reconciliation of God to all, but no Reconciliation of man to God; friendship betwixt enemies must be mutual, if a Reconciliation be; and our state before this was enmity Rom. 5:10; Col. 1:20, 21. and God's wrath was against us & upon us, Ephes. 2:3; Joh. 3:36. But now, how will this agree with Universal Redemption? Is God Reconciled to all, when many perish under his wrath, for ever? Can God be said to be, upon the death of Christ, Reconciled to all, when it may so fall out, that not one soul shall have peace with God? How cometh it to passe, that many, whose Reconciliation Christ hath purchased, live & die enemies to God? Sure the Apostle tels us 2. Cor. 5:19. that to whom God is reconciled, to them he doth not impute sin: & he assureth us, that all such, as are reconciled to God, by the death of his Son, shall be saved. Rom. 5:10.
Adde (29.) That it seemeth hard to say, That Christ laid down his life a Price, a Ransome, a Sacrifice, an Atonement & Propitiation, &c. to Purchase, Procure, Merite Grace, & Glory, & to make Reconciliation & Peace betwixt God, & such, as were already suffering the vengeance of eternal fire, & to satisfie for their sinnes, who were already condemned to the torments of hell fire: and yet this must be said by such, as assert Universal Redemption. Was Christ so prodigal of his blood, as to cast it away, for such as were irrecoverably gone? If it be said, that this is no more hard, than to say, that Christ suffered for such, as were already glorified. Any may see, how vast the difference is, for such as were glorified, were glorified upon the account of Christs Death, which was to be, in the time appointed & designed by Father & Son. When one promiseth a summe for redeeming of so many slaves, & the summe, according to mutual agreement, is to be payed at such a day, the slaves may be presently relieved, in contemplation of the price, which is accepted, & is to be payed hereafter at the time appointed: But when one cometh to lay down Ransome-money, he cannot be said to lay it downe for such as are dead, & that he knoweth to be dead many years ago, & so uncapable of Redemption.
Further (30.) If Christ died for all, then he intended to die for all; then the Father also intended, that he should die for all; then he intended that it should be a Redemption for all, & that thereby all should be Redeemed: for to what end else should Christ die & redeem, if not that such, as he died for & Redeemed, be Redeemed & Delivered? Or to what other end should God intended that Christ should die for all, than to the ends mentioned in Scripture, of which we have spoken? And how can we say, that God did intend the Redemption of all, when all are not actually Redeemed? Are his intentions so fallible, and frustrable? If it be said, that he Intended only a Possible Salvation, and not Actual. I Ans. The Scripture speaketh no such thing as we have seen: And how unsuteable is it to the wisdom of God, to send his Son, actually to die, and bear the curse, and only intend thereby a Possible Redemption, which might never prove Actual to any one soul? If it be said, That he Intended an Actual Redemption, but Conditionally. I Answer. Redemption upon a Condition is but a Conditional Redemption, & that is but a Potential, Possible Redemption, unlesse you say, that the condition is also purchased: and then, as to God, it is an Absolute Redemption, & intended as such: doth it suite the wisdom of God, to intend Redemption to all, and not intend also the Condition, by which alone it must become Actual, & which he alone can work, but will not? Must we thus ascribe such intentions to God, as must hang upon mans will, & be subordinate thereunto? Or if he see, that the Condition will never be performed, how can we think, that he intendeth any thing upon a Condition, that shall never be? But enough of this, at present.
Moreover (31.) This doctrine of Universal Redemption is derogatory to the solide consolation of the Redeemed, & Weakeneth the grounds of their song; and therefore it is not to be admitted. This Argument is fully & solidely prosecuted, and vindicated from what can be allaiged against it, by the learned & solide divine Mr. Durham, in his Comment on the Revelation pag. 304. & 305. And to him shall I referre the Reader: only I shall crave leave to adde this: That by our Adversaries grounds, the song of the Saved shall not run, as it doth Revel. 5:9, 10. But rather thus, We have saved our selves, out of every kinred, & tongue; & people, & nation, & have made our selves unto God, Kings & Priests: For whereas Christ by his blood Redeemed all of every kinred, and tongue, and people, & nation, and not some only out of them; we our selves have, by our own free good will, made a difference betwixt our selves, and the rest; and we are no more beholden to Christ for all that we have attained to, then the damned in hell are, for whom Christ shed his blood, as well as for us, & to whom he purchased by his blood & death, as much, as for us; as Adversaries say. So that I see not how Arminians, can think to joine in this Song, & have any share of this Consolation, which is solely founded upon the Redemption of Christ, as a peculiar & no common blessing. Let them consider it, for it concerneth them not a little, seing all that come to glory will sing to the honour of their Redeemer, upon other grounds, as we see, then these are, which our Adversaries lay down, and plead so earnestly for. If any say, that Christ moreover hath purchased faith to some, even to all that are actually saved. I Answer. As neither the Arminians, nor semi-Arminians, I mean the followers of Camero will say this, or giant so much; so the granting of it, will evert the other Universal Conditional Redemption; for the Scripture speaketh but of one kind of Redemption, of one Price laid down, of one Covenant betwixt Jehovah & the Mediator; & of one Giving unto Christ of Persons to be redeemed. Shall we think, that Christ would lay down as great a ransome for such, as he was not to purchase faith unto, as for the rest? Shall we think that he would lay down his life in vaine, & make no purchase thereby? And of the Reprobat, for whom he was not to purchase faith, he knew he could make no purchase; for without faith his death would be of no advantage unto them. And where do we read, that all were given unto him to redeem? Yea, are not the given ones clearly distinguished from the rest? Joh. 17:6, 9. as we cleared above.
Againe (32.) If the Redemption of Christ be Universal, and Conditional: it must necessarily follow, that Christ laid down his life, and the price of his blood, as much for Judas, and all the Reprobate, as he did for John, and all the Elect: for the Redemption being Conditionally for all, it cannot be more for one, then for another. And yet this cannot be said, as appeareth from the reasons formerly adduced. This would say, that the Fathers and Christs love was equal towards all; and that no more was purchased for the one, than for the other; and that the Elect have no more benefite by Christs death, than the Reprobat have; and that Christ had no more an eye to Redeem the Elect by his death, than to Redeem the Reprobat; & was no more a Cautioner for the one, than for the other: all which and the like cannot but be looked upon, as most absurd. Shall we think, that Christ became sin, as well, or as much, for Judas, as for Peter? Shall we think, that He redeemed all alike from the Curse of the Law? These sound ill to Christian ears.
So (33.) we may thus reason: Either Christ's Redemption is Conditional & Universal, as to the Price laid down & Satisfaction made; or as to the Application & Actual bestowing of the benefites purchased: But neither can be said to the advantage of the Adversaries cause; for if the last be said, we willingly grant that some of the benefites, as Justification, Adoption, and actuall Glorification, are conferred in a manner conditionally: but some, as faith and the New heart, are given absolutely: and this cannot help the Adversaries cause, for they will not say, that either all have faith bestowed upon them, or that all are by believing Justified & Adopted &c. and so this is not Universall: and if the first be said, to wit, That Christ laid down his life Conditionally, it must be said, that Christ did not lay down his life Absolutely, but upon some condition; and what can that Condition be, upon which the death of Christ was suspended? If it be said, that the faith of those, to whom it was to be preached, was the Condition: then it must be said, that Christ did not die untill these believed, or that his death was no satisfaction or price, untill they actually believed: and then the Father could not be well pleased with the price as a satisfaction, until mens Faith came to make it an Actual price: which is both absurd, and contrary to Scripture. If it be said, That Christ did absolutely lay down his life a satisfactory Ransom, and that for all, yet so as none, that would not fulfil the Condition, should be redeemed. I Answer. If it was an Absolute satisfactory Ransome, & accepted as such, something must have been purchased thereby, & all behoved actually & really to be delivered from the Law & from the curse, or from something, by vertue of that Absolute Price; and they could not be made to pay over againe what was payed by the price of his blood; for Justice could not call for two satisfactions. And if all were, upon this Absolute Price payed, Redeemed from the Law, the Curse, & the Sentence of the first Covenant, no man shall now die for that broken Covenant. If it be said, No man was Absolutely delivered even from that, but only Conditionally. I Ans. How then was it an Absolute Price? Or what was purchased thereby? If it be said, That a possibility of Freedom was absolutely purchased. Ans. This was rejected above: and the Scripture inferreth Actual Redemption from Christs purchase, He shall justifie many, for he shall bear their iniquities Esai. 53:11. which saith, That all whose iniquities he did bear, shall be Actually & Really Justified by him, & not have a meer Possibility of Justification.
Further (34.) We may thus argue, If Christ died for all & every one, He either died for all Absolutely or Conditionally, The first cannot be said, for the reasons already adduced militate against that. Nor can it be said, that He died for all Conditionally: for then either he died to purchase Life & Salvation to all upon Condition of their performance of something proposed as a Condition; or to purchase salvation, and all the meanes thereunto or Conditions thereof, Conditionally, But neither of these can be said. Therefore &c. The major is clear from this; that the enumeration is full, & no other way can this Conditional Redemption be conceived or explained. The minor may be thus confirmed, The first way cannot be said, to wit, that life and salvation was purchased to all, upon a Condition to be by them performed, that is, upon Condition of their believing: for either this Condition is in the power of every son of Adam, or not: if it be not in their power (as all but Pelagians will confess) then this Redemption is no Redemption; for a Redemption of Captives upon a Condition impossible to them, is as good as no Redemption. Nor can the last way be said, to wit, that Redemption, and all the Conditions & Means thereof were Conditionally purchased; for what can be assigned as the Condition of these Conditions? And though there were a Condition of the Lords working of Faith assigned, (which yet we finde not in Scripture) yet that would not help the matter; for that Condition of Faith would it self be a mean to salvation, and so purchased Conditionally, upon another Condition, and that other Condition must be purchased upon another Condition, & so in infinitum: which is absurd.
As also (35.) this is considerable, That the asserting of Universal Redemption goeth not alone; but there are several other Universalities also affirmed, and maintained, either as Consequences, or Concomitants, or Grounds thereof, which the Scripture knoweth not: such as these. (1.) An Universal Love & Philanthropie, towards all & every one, without any difference: which they lay down, as the ground of the Sending of Christ to die for all indiscriminatly. (2.) An Universal Will in God to save all, which they call an Antecedent Will; and hold forth as a Velleity, or a wish & desire, that all might be saved; as if God could not effectuat whatever he desired, or could have a velleity towards any thing, which either he could not, or would not effectuat. (3.) An Universal Predestination conditional; which expression Amerald used untill the Synods in France did disswade him there from. (4.) An Universal gift of all to Christ, or an Universal gift of Christ to all; that is, a Will & purpose that Christ should lay down his life for all, and Redeem all; at least Conditionally. (5.) An Universal Justification conditional. And why not also an Universal Salvation conditional? (6.) An Universal Covenant of Grace made with all mankinde in Adam, wherein is a free universal deed of gift of Christ first, and of Pardon, Spirit & Glory, in & by him, to all Mankinde without exception, upon condition of acceptance; as also an offer of Faith, Repentance, Conversion, with all the consequences thereof. (7.) An Universal will in God to call into this Covenant, and unto the Participation of the benefites thereof, all & every man. (8.) An Universal execution of this will, or promulgation of this Gospel or New Covenant, unto all & every one, by common favours & benefites bestowed on all, whereby all are called to believe in a merciful pardoning God; and all have abundance of Mercies & Meanes of Recovery & of life; for the Lord now governeth the world, only on termes of grace. (9.) Upon this followeth an Universal Command to all men to use certaine duties & meanes for their Recovery by Faith & Repentance. (10.) An Universal pardon of the first Sin, so far, at least, that no man shall perish for the meer Original sin of Nature alone, unless he adde the rejection of grace. (11.) Hence followeth an Universal Judgment & Sentence on all, in the great day, only according as they have performed the new Gospel Conditions. (12.) Some also adde an Universal Subjective Grace, whereby all are enabled to performe the conditions of the new Covenant. (13.) Universal proper Fruits & Effects of this death, whereby all the outward favours, that Heathens enjoy are said to be purchased for them by Christ: & why not also what Devils enjoy?
Finally (36.) This assertion of Universal Redemption layeth the ground of, & maketh way to a new frame of the Covenant of Grace, quite overturning its Nature, and transforming it into a new Covenant of Works, making it one & the same with that, as to kinde, & only to differ, as to the change of Conditions to be performed by man: for as, in the first Covenant, Adam was to obtain right to, & possession of life promised, in, by, for, through and upon the account of his fulfilling the Condition of perfect obedience, imposed by the Lord; so, in the New Covenant, man is to obtaine & acquire to himself a right to & possession of the Life promised, in, by, for, through & upon the account of his performance of the Condition of Faith & new obedience, now imposed in the Gospel; and all the difference is, that in stead of perfect obedience to the Law, which was the Condition of the first Covenant, now Faith & sincere Gospel Obedience is made the Condition: And thus we can no less he said to be justified by works of the Law, or which we do, then Adam should have been said to have been so justified, had he stood; and this justification giveth as great ground of boasting unto man, & of making the reward of debt, & not of grace, as justification by the first Covenant would have done; for though it be said, that Christ hath made satisfaction to justice, for the breach of the first Law, & thereby purchased to all, upon Condition, Justification & Salvation; yet this removeth not the difficulty; for what is purchased by Christ's death is made Universal & Common to all; and so can be nothing (according to our Adversaries) but a putting of all men, in statu quo prius, in case to run & obtaine the prize for themselves; as God's absolute free love put Adam in that Condition at first: Christ's death (though thereby, as they say, he purchased the New Covenant, which with them is the chiefe, if not the only, effect & fruit of his Death & Merites) can be no more, than a very remote ground of Right to Life & Salvation, unto any person; for it is made Universal & Common to all, so that all have equal share therein, & advantage thereby; man himself, by performing the new Conditions, only making the difference; so that the immediat ground of the Right to life, which any have, is their own Faith & Obedience, or performance of the New Covenant-conditions. Whereby it is manifest, that as to our Particular, and Immediat Right to Happiness, we are to plead our own works, & lean to them, as our ground whereupon we may stand & appear before God's Tribunal; and upon the account thereof plead for the crown, as our due debt, having now run for it, & performed the Condition, agreed upon, and so sing praises to our selves, in stead of singing praises to our Redeemer. Hence the Righteousness, wherein we must appear before God, is not the Righteousness of Christ, but our own; for the Righteousness of Christ, say they, is only imputed in regard of its effects, whereof the new Covenant is the All, or the Chiefe; and so that doth not become the Righteousness of any man, nor can be said to be imputed to any man properly, (which also they assert) but his own Faith is only imputed properly (which also they plead for) as his Righteousness; not, as a Way, Medium, or Methode, of Gospel-Righteousness (especially when Gospel-Obedience is adjoyned) The Righteousness of Christ being thereby only accounted to be imputed, in that it hath procured, that our own Gospel Righteousness, Faith & new Obedience, shall be imputed to us, as our Immediat Righteousness, & the ground of our Right to Glory. What accord is betwixt this frame of the Covenant of Grace, & that way of justification held forth by Socinians, Arminians & Papists, the learned will easily see; and how contrary it is to the Covenant of Grace held forth in the Gospel, & hitherto professed & maintained by the orthodox, every one acquainted therewith cannot be ignorant; & it is obvious, how opposite this is unto what the Apostle saith Phil. 3:8, 9. yea doubtless, and I count all things but loss, for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus my Lord, for whom I have suffered the loss of all things, and do count them but dung; that I may win Christ, and be found in him, not having mine own Righteousness, which is of the Law; but that which is through the Faith of Christ, the Righteousness which is of God by faith. And Tit. 3:5, 6, 7. Not by works of Righteousness, which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost which he shed on us abundantly, through Jesus Christ our Saviour: that being justified by his grace, we should be made heirs, according to the hope of eternal life. And Rom. 3:20, 21, 22, 24. Therefore by the deeds of the Law there shall no flesh be justified—but now the Righteousness of God without the Law is manifest—even the Righteousness of God, which is by Faith of Jesus Christ, unto all and upon all them that believe—being justified freely by his grace, through the Redemption, that is in Jesus Christ. And many other places. It is no less clear, how hereby the true nature of justifying faith, and Gospel Obedience is perverted: & withall how dangerous this is, if put into practice; or if men act & live accordingly, every serious exercised Christian knoweth.
From The Life of Justification Opened, By John Brown of Wamphray